Background Pandemics begin and end in communities and to manage them, community engagement must be a priority. The use of community health workers (CHWs) during the COVID-19 response is key to engaging communities and strengthening their capacity to limit the spread of disease. Integration of CHWs into health systems is a key enabler and integral to their success and requires inclusion of CHWs into health policies. This thesis aims at exploring the role of CHW in the COVID-19 response in the Caribbean countries to identify practices which can potentially form basis for subregional policy and contribute to capacity building within human resources for health and health system strengthening in the subregion. Methods An exploratory study using a mixed-methods approach of reviewing policies and grey literature detailing COVID-19 community health initiatives, and key-informant interviews (KIIs) in the Caribbean. Results Preliminary results from the policy review finds that CHWs have been widely used in infection prevention and control, as well as for providing psycho-social support to vulnerable populations and supporting the delivery of basic health services. However, few formal policies on the work of CHWs are available. KIIs are yet to be conducted and may yet contribute new knowledge. Conclusions While CHWs have been widely used during the COVID-19 response in the Caribbean, the apparent lack of formal policies may be a barrier to their success. Developing such policy will not only strengthen community health interventions against COVID-19, but also support Caribbean countries in how to strengthen their post-COVID-19 health workforces and improve sanitary emergency response preparedness. The findings of this exploratory study can contribute to developing health policy guidelines on CHWs in the Caribbean. Key messages Community health workers are key for engaging and supporting communities and vulnerable populations during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lessons learned on community health workers during the COVID-19 pandemic should be integrated into health policies to strengthen the health workforce and improve sanitary emergency preparedness.
Health system decision-makers need comprehensive evidence to mitigate surges in the demand for human resources for health (HRH) during infectious disease outbreaks. This study aimed to assess the state of the evidence on policy and planning responses to HRH surge capacity during the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic and other viral respiratory disease outbreaks of global significance in the 21st century. We systematically searched eight bibliographic databases to extract primary research articles published between January 2000 and June 2020 capturing temporal changes in health workforce requirements and responses surrounding respiratory virus pandemics. Following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses standard, 16 studies met our inclusion criteria. Five focused on COVID-19, three on H1N1, and eight modelled a hypothetical pandemic. Investigations of different training, mobilization, and redeployment options to address pandemic-time health system capacity were reviewed;however, few scenarios drew on observational HRH data, and heterogeneity of study approaches and outcomes generally precluded comparability across contexts. Notable evidence gaps included occupational and psychosocial factors affecting healthcare workers' absenteeism and risk of burnout, gendered considerations of HRH capacity, evaluations in low- and lower-middle income countries, and policy-actionable assessments to inform post-pandemic recovery and sustainability of services for noncommunicable disease management.
Interprofessional education (IPE) brings educators and learners from two or more health professions together in a collaborative learning environment, specifically assuring that learners function as a team to provide patient-centered care, with each team member contributing a unique perspective. The Liaison Committee on Medical Education, the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education, and the American Board of Radiology have endorsed interprofessional and team communication as essential core competencies. Radiology educators must understand, include, and optimize IPE in their pedagogy; as a specialty, radiology must innovate more interprofessional experiences for medical students, residents and other allied health professions.
BACKGROUND: The King's College London Pre-hospital Care Programme (KCL PCP) is a student-run programme that provides undergraduate medical students with the opportunity to attend observer shifts with the local ambulance service. This study evaluates the contribution of pre-hospital exposure to medical students' clinical and professional development. METHODS: Students were asked to complete a Likert-scale based survey on self-reported exposure and confidence in various aspects of acute patient assessment, communication and interprofessional education, both before and after the programme; additional qualitative questions querying their experience were asked post-programme. Pre and post-programme Likert-scale responses were matched and statistically analysed, alongside a thematic analysis of qualitative responses. RESULTS: Exposure to ambulance service clinicians, confidence assessing acutely unwell patients, and confidence making clinical handovers all increased with statistical significance. Key areas of learning identified from the thematic analysis include increased confidence communicating with patients and families, and an enriched understanding of the work done by pre-hospital clinicians. CONCLUSIONS: Time spent in the pre-hospital environment shadowing ambulance service clinicians positively contributes to acute care knowledge, inter-personal skills and interprofessional understanding. Rotating medical students through the pre-hospital environment could bridge education gaps in these areas in a manner that complements traditional pre-clinical and clinical teaching.
INTRODUCTION: Cultural transformation is needed for health care to be sensitive to children's pain. The Pediatric Pain Practice Registered Nurses (PRN) Curriculum is the first free, open access, downloadable, interprofessional pain continuing education (IPPCE) curriculum developed to empower health care professionals to translate evidence-based pain care into clinical practice. To evaluate the curriculum and its experiential flipped-learning strategies, we used a mixed methods approach. METHODS: Interprofessional pediatric teams from eight health care systems evaluated the curriculum after attending Pediatric Pain PRN Courses in the Fall of 2017 (N = 90). Qualitative methods were used to evaluate the acceptability, feasibility, and utility of the curriculum and IPPCE strategies. Pain knowledge and attitudes were measured pre-IPPCE/post-IPPCE with the Pediatric Healthcare Provider's Knowledge & Attitude Survey Regarding Pain (PHPKAS). Web analytics were used to describe dissemination for the first year after the curriculum's webpage launch. RESULTS: Learners rated their achievement of course objectives as moderate-great. PHPKAS scores significantly increased (P < .0005); but significant differences in physician and nurse PHPKAS question responses pre-IPPCE/post-IPPCE were found. Within 2 years of the IPPCE, three health care systems were certified as Childkind Hospitals, five Pediatric Pain PRN Programs were established, and various practice changes and improved patient outcomes, such as decreased hospital lengths of stay and emergency department returns for pain, were realized. Curriculum dissemination was global. DISCUSSION: Results support the acceptability, effectiveness, feasibility, utility, and global dissemination of the curriculum and IPPCE strategies. More rigorous patient outcome data are needed; however, this study demonstrated the benefit of a free, open-access, downloadable, interprofessional health care provider continuing education curriculum.
Interprofessional Education (IPE) is challenging to implement and assess due to barriers preventing interprofessional communication, inadequately defined accreditation criteria, ambiguous professional roles and responsibilities, and the inherently "ill-structured" educational construct of IPE. To address these gaps, a novel comprehensive, integrated, and multimodal interprofessional education and practice (CIM-IPEP) curriculum involving students from pharmacy, medicine, psychology, and nursing professional degree programmes was created. CIM-IPEP was carefully designed based on cognitive flexibility theory (CFT) to reinforce the complexities associated with teaching and learning for multi-faceted and dynamic domains such as IPE. CFT emphasises pluralistic representation, repetition, and cognitive layering in experiential learning for ill-structured domains. Thus, CIM-IPEP was vertically and horizontally aligned within individual colleges and included diverse IPE experiences in required courses such as Foundations of IPE, and high-fidelity simulation events, culminating in an IPE-Hotspotting elective, which exposed learners to real-world patient cases. Cases were presented in a format of increasing complexity emphasising the integration of foundational and skills-based learning using constructivist methods such as Team-Based and Case-Based Learning. CIM-IPEP offers a novel IPE model. Here we present a stepwise development and implementation blueprint for similar IPE programmes that is readily transferable to other health profession education (HPE) programmes.
Responsibility for the provision of veterinary care and services is increasingly shared between veterinary surgeons/veterinarians and registered veterinary nurses/veterinary technicians. Interprofessional education of these clinical professionals is not widespread but is growing. Understanding students' perceptions of veterinary interprofessional education and working is therefore important; however, no validated scale exists to assess this. This study aimed to create and test the psychometric properties of a 'Student perceptions of veterinary interprofessional education and work scale' (SP-VIEWS). A scale was built using scales previously validated in other contexts, plus statements informed by veterinary interprofessional research, and sent to veterinary and veterinary nursing students at six UK institutions. Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) on a randomly-selected half of the responses (n = 260) suggested a model with 16 items grouped within three factors: 'Benefits of learning with the other profession', 'Leadership and speaking up' and 'Teams and benefits of teamwork'. Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) on the remaining 260 responses demonstrated appropriate fit based on conventional parameters, such as goodness of fit index. Overall internal consistency was good (Cronbach's alpha 0.82). CFA demonstrated that SP-VIEWS showed adequate, though not excellent, fit to the data. Future research should evaluate SP-VIEWS in other universities and countries.
Initiatives to implement interprofessional simulation education programs (ISEP) often fail due to lack of support, resources from management or proper integration into the organization system. This paper aims to identify factors that ensure the successful implementation of an ISEP. Further, the study explores the potential effects an ISEP can have on organizational processes and culture. The case study describes the implementation process of an ISEP in a non-academic community hospital using interviews, participative observations and archival data over six years. A thematic approach has been used to analyze the data guided by Kotter's 8-step model for organizational change. Strategies for a successful implementation of an ISEP include: 1) make a case for interprofessional simulation-based education (SBE), 2) search for healthcare champions, 3) define where the ISEP will lead the organization, 4) spread the word about interprofessional SBE, 5) ensure that structures, skills and supervisors align with the change effort, 6) win over smaller entities, 7) enable peer feedback and create more change, 8) institutionalize the ISEP. Indicators of how the ISEP impacted hospital culture are presented and discussed. ISEPs - if implemented effectively - provide powerful opportunities to span boundaries between professional groups, foster interprofessional collaboration, and eventually improve patient care.
Healthcare reform has led to the consideration of interprofessional team-based, collaborative care as a way to provide comprehensive, high-quality care to patients and families. Interprofessional education is the mechanism by which the next generation health professional workforce is preparing for the future of health care-team-based, collaborative care. This literature review explored the extent and content of published studies documenting Interprofessional Education (IPE) activities with psychology trainees across learner level. A systematic review following PRISMA guidelines was conducted of studies describing IPE involving psychology learners. Electronic databases (MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsychINFO, and EMBASE) were searched for the following terms: inter/multi-professional education/practice, inter/multidisciplinary education/practice, and psychology/psychologists. Thirty-seven articles were identified that included psychology in clinical outcome studies or other reviews of interprofessional education initiatives. The review addresses the nature of current IPE learning activities, the impact of IPE activities on participating trainees, opportunities for, and challenges of, involving psychology trainees in IPE, and future directions for research. This review illuminates the relative paucity of the literature about IPE in psychology training. Given the trend toward increasing team-based collaborative care, the limited inclusion of psychology in the IPE literature is concerning. The next generation of health professional trainees is learning about, from, and with each other with the objective of building collaboration and teamwork. Given the few articles documenting psychology trainees' involvement in IPE, future health professionals quite possibly will have limited understanding of, and contact with, psychologists. Our findings are a call to action for greater psychology involvement in IPE.
Interprofessional Education and Collaborative Practice (IPECP) is a field of study suggested to improve team functioning and patient safety. However, even interprofessional teams are susceptible to group pressures which may inhibit speaking up (positive deviance). Obedience is one group pressure that can inhibit positive deviance leading to negative patient outcomes. To examine the influence of obedience to authority in an interprofessional setting, an experimental simulated clinical scenario was conducted with Respiratory Therapy (RT) (n = 40) and Advanced Care Paramedic (ACP) (n = 20) students. In an airway management scenario, it was necessary for students to challenge an authority, a senior anesthesiologist, to prevent patient harm. In a 2 × 2 design cognitive load and an interventional writing task designed to increase positive deviance were tested. The effect of individual characteristics, including Moral Foundations, and displacement of responsibility were also examined. There was a significant effect for profession and cognitive load: RT students demonstrated lower levels of positive deviance in the low cognitive load scenario than students in other conditions. The writing task did not have a significant effect on RT or ACP students' behaviour. The influence of Moral Foundations differed from expectations, In Group Loyalty was selected as a negative predictor of positive deviance while Respect for Authority was not. Displacement of responsibility was influential for some participants thought not for all. Other individual variables were identified for further investigation. Observational analysis of the simulation videos was conducted to obtain further insight into student behaviour in a compliance scenario. Individual differences, including experience, should be considered when providing education and training for positive deviance. Simulation provides an ideal setting to use compliance scenarios to train for positive deviance and for experimentation to study interprofessional team behaviour.
Interprofessional education (IPE) is defined as educational activities involving trainees from two or more professions learning about, from, and with each other with the goal of building team-based collaboration skills. The degree to which psychology trainees are involved in IPE is unknown. A national survey was distributed to gather information regarding the nature and prevalence of IPE experiences and psychology trainees' perceived competence in collaboration skills. Participant responses (n = 143) are presented overall and by training level. Some respondents reported no IPE activities in their training, especially trainees earlier in their training. Highest rated competencies were in acting with honesty and integrity and developing/maintaining mutual respect and trust of other professions. Lowest rated were in giving feedback to others and managing differences in opinion. More research related to the nature and impact of IPE on psychology trainees is critical.
Dental replantationis a major problem in public health. Its prognosis depends on emergency care, butthere is a lack of knowledge on it. So, this study aims to evaluate the knowledge of undergraduate students of Dentistry, Speech Therapy, Physical Education, Pedagogy,and Technologist in Radiology. One hundred and fifty-onestudents answered tenquestions about emergency replantation care. Then, an educational lecture was performed. The same questions were asked again to the same students to reevaluate their answers. The statisticaltests were employed at a significant level of p<0.05. There wasa significant difference (p<0.05)inthe responsesbefore and after the lecture. The dental students had a higher knowledge ofthe subject (p<0.05). The educational presentation reached its objective, since there was an improvement in the index of all answers of the post-lecture questionnaire, demonstrating thatthe people must be informedand trainedin the emergency management of dental avulsion (AU). O reimplante dentário é um grande problema de saúde pública. Seu prognóstico depende do atendimento de urgência, mas ainda falta conhecimento.Assim, este estudo tem como objetivo avaliar o conhecimento de graduandos de Odontologia, Fonoaudiologia, Educação Física, Pedagogia e Tecnólogo em Radiologia. Cento e cinquenta e umalunos responderam a 10 perguntas sobre cuidados de reimplante de emergência. Em seguida, foi realizada uma palestra educativa. As mesmas perguntas foram feitas novamente aos mesmos alunos para reavaliar suas respostas. Os testes estatísticos foram empregados em um nível de significância de p <0,05. Houve diferença significativa (p <0,05) nas respostas antes e depois da palestra. Os estudantes de odontologia apresentaram maior conhecimento sobre o assunto (p <0,05). A apresentação educativa atingiu seu objetivo, visto que houve uma melhora no índice de todas as respostas do questionário pós-aula, demonstrando que as pessoas devem ser informadas e treinadas no manejo emergencial da avulsão dentária (AU).
Para o alcance dos princípios do Sistema Único de Saúde é necessária a formação de profissionais de saúde integrados à rede de saúde e que reconheçam a necessidade das diferentes realidades brasileiras, como a atenção aos povos indígenas. O objetivo é apresentar um relato de experiência para a reorientação do modelo formador priorizando a integração ensino-serviço-comunidade e a contribuição da Faculdade de Odontologia de Ribeirão Preto da Universidade de São Paulo para a efetivação das Políticas Públicas de Educação e Saúde, explorando sua interface com a Política Nacional de Atenção à Saúde dos Povos Indígenas e a Política Nacional de Saúde Bucal. As ações formativas propostas no Projeto "Huka Katu" envolvem a reorientação do modelo formador e assistencialjunto à comunidade. As etapas preparatória e operacional são desenvolvidas nas disciplinas optativas livres -Atenção à Saúde Bucal em Populações Indígenas I e II. No período da pandemia da COVID-19, a disciplina I tem se desenvolvido em ambiente virtual com uso de metodologias ativas de ensino-aprendizagem e abordagem do cuidado intercultural. A disciplina II é desenvolvida no contexto da atenção primária nas aldeias do Parque Indígena do Xingu, com ênfase na integralidade da atenção em saúde e aprendizagem pela vivência do trabalho em saúde indígena, junto a equipes multiprofissionais. O Projeto tem contribuído na formação de profissionais de saúde para o trabalho em equipe colaborativo, com egressos envolvidos diretamente na assistência ou na gestão de saúde no subsistema de saúde indígena (AU). To achieve the principles of the Sistema Único de Saúde, it is necessary to improve health professionals' education who are integrated into the health network and who recognize the need for different Brazilian realities, such as indigenous peoples' health care. The objective is to present an experience report for the reorientation of the educational model prioritizing the teaching-service-community integration and the contribution of the Ribeirão Preto School of Dentistry, University of São Paulo, to the implementation of Public Education and Health Policies, exploring its interface with the National Health Care Policy for Indigenous Peoples and the National Oral Health Policy. The education actions proposed in the "Huka Katu" Project involve the reorientation of the training and assistance model to the community. The preparatory and operational stages are developed in the open elective courses -Oral Health Care in Indigenous Populations I andII. During COVID-19 pandemic, Course I was carried out in a virtual environment using active teaching-learning methodologies and an approach to intercultural care. Course II is developed in the context of primary care in the villages of the Xingu Indigenous Park, with emphasis on comprehensive health care and learning through the experience of working in indigenous health, together with multidisciplinary teams. The Project has contributed to the training of health professionals for collaborative teamwork, with graduates directly involved in health care or management in the indigenous health subsystem (AU).
The purpose of this study was to (1) explore evidence provided by Canadian health and social care (HASC) academic programs in meeting their profession-specific interprofessional education (IPE)-relevant accreditation standards; (2) share successes, exemplars, and challenges experienced by HASC academic programs in meeting their IPE-relevant accreditation standards; and (3) articulate the impacts of IPE-relevant accreditation standards on enabling interprofessional learning to the global HASC academic community.
Profession-specific (bilingual, if requested) surveys were developed and emailed to the Deans/Academic Program Directors of eligible academic programs with a request to forward to the individual who oversees IPE accreditation. Responses were collated collectively and by profession. Open-ended responses associated with our first objective were deductively categorized to align with the five Accreditation of Interprofessional Health Education (AIPHE) standards domains. Responses to our additional questions associated with our second and third objectives were inductively categorized into themes.
Of the 270 HASC academic programs surveyed, 30% (n = 24) partially or completely responded to our questions. Of the 106 IPE-relevant standards where evidence was provided, 62% (n = 66) focused on the Educational Program, 88% of which (n = 58) were either met or partially met, and 47% (n = 31) of which focused on practice-based IPE. Respondents cited various exemplars and challenges in meeting IPE-relevant standards.
The overall sentiment was that IPE accreditation was a significant driver of the IPE curriculum and its continuous improvement. The array of exemplars described in this paper may be of relevance in advancing IPE implementation and accreditation across Canada and perhaps, more importantly, in countries where these processes are yet emerging.
The question of whether communicable or non-communicable diseases have higher economic effects on households is rarely explored from the global to local level despite of their significant contribution in increasing household catastrophic spending and impoverishment. To shed light into this, therefore, this paper comparatively examines the economic effects of communicable and non-communicable diseases in Tanzania by the use of Tanzania Panel Survey data of 2019/2020 which has been used to analyze different parameters to provide needful information. The empirical analysis employed probit, two-stage residual inclusion (2SRI), and control function approachf (CFA) helpful in controlling endogeneity issues. Findings showed that, comparatively, non-communicable diseases have higher economic effects in endangering households into catastrophic spending and impoverishment comparing to communicable diseases. Conclusively, neglecting developing countries to fights against multiplicative effects of these diseases alone will result in killing their economies since most of these countries depend on donors and household as a means of healthcare financing. However, this paper recommends for global initiatives in reducing the burden of disease by funding on palliative care costs and enhancing the availability of affordable health insurance schemes to reduce household economic burden.
Health workers are crucial in the preparedness and response to COVID-19, but the pandemic has evidenced the shortage of human resources for health (HRH) in certain countries, reduced or lack of protective equipment, and timely protocols to address occupational, health and safety issues. Health workers have been infected by the virus with consequences in terms of morbidity and mortality. Consequently, available staff workload is expected to increase. While the COVID-19 pandemic has stressed health workforce shortages in countries, it has also led to identifying ways to rapidly hire and train the health workforce. The recognition and understanding of the mechanisms used by countries (such as recruitment processes, type of redeployment, incentives) will provide evidence on ways to address health worker shortages during such outbreaks and therefore implementation gaps will be reduced. This report informs and analyzes the impact of COVID-19 on health workers' occupational health and safety concerns, working conditions, as well as policy responses to address these issues and to increase HRH surge capacity in Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica. The report also describes elements related to HRH and COVID-19 vaccination in selected countries and shares the experiences from Belize, Grenada, and Jamaica (members of CARICOM), which represent different areas of the Caribbean. The report will also inform the HRH Action Task Force and its contribution to technical cooperation and HRH management support. The target audience includes policy-makers, academics, and researchers on addressing health worker issues during health emergencies.
The World Health Organization (WHO) recognizes a critical shortage of health workers as a growing global crisis. The shortage persists despite local and global efforts to recruit health workers ethically. Unequal migration of healthcare professionals, most often from low to high-resource countries, overwhelmingly defeats the objective of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC). If not addressed, especially given emerging global pandemics like COVID-19, the critical shortage of health workers could decimate vulnerable public health systems. This Viewpoint describes the Root-Stem Model, a six-stage process of strategic factors affecting work life that could help policymakers address the challenge of brain-drain among healthcare workers in low-income countries.
Primary Health Care (PHC) gained considerable momentum in the past four decades and led to improved health outcomes across a wide variety of settings. In low-and middle-income countries (LMICs), national or large-scale Community Health Worker Programs (CHWPs) are considered as vehicles to incorporate PHC principles into healthcare provision and are an essential aspect of the PHC approach to achieve health for all and sustainable development goals. The success of CHWPs is rooted in the application of PHC principles. However, there is evidence that shows patchy implementation of PHC principles across national CHWPs in LMICs. This may reflect the lack of information on what activities would illustrate the application of these principles in CHWPs. This study aimed to identify a set of core/indicator-activities that reflect the application of PHC principles by CHWPs in LMICs.
A two-round modified Delphi study was undertaken with participants who have extensive experience in planning, implementation and evaluation of CHWPs. Survey design and analysis was guided by the four PHC principles namely Universal Health Coverage, Community Participation, Intersectoral Coordination and Appropriateness. Responses were collected using a secure online survey program (survey monkey). In round one, participants were asked to list ‘core activities’ that would reflect the application of each PHC principle and its sub-attributes and challenges to apply these principles in CHWPs. In round two, participants were asked to select whether they agree or disagree with each of the activities and challenges. Consensus was set a priori at 70% agreement of participants for each question.
Seventeen participants from 15 countries participated in the study. Consensus was reached on 59 activities reflecting the application of PHC principles by CHWPs. Based on participants’ responses, a set of 29 indicator-activities for the four PHC principles was developed with examples for each indicator-activity.
These indicator-activities may provide guidance on how PHC principles can be implemented in CHWPs. They can be used in the development and evaluation of CHWPs, particularly in their application of PHC principles. Future research may focus on testing the utility of indicator-activities on CHWPs in LMICs.
Globally, nearly half of all deaths among children under the age of 5 years can be attributed to malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia. A significant proportion of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Despite several programmes implemented in sub-Saharan Africa, the burden of these illnesses remains persistently high. To mobilise resources for such programmes it is necessary to evaluate their costs, costs-effectiveness, and affordability. This study aimed to estimate the provider costs of treating malaria, diarrhoea, and pneumonia among children under the age of 5 years in routine settings at the health facility level in rural Uganda and Mozambique.
Service and cost data was collected from health facilities in midwestern Uganda and Inhambane province, Mozambique from private and public health facilities. Financial and economic costs of providing care for childhood illnesses were investigated from the provider perspective by combining a top-down and bottom-up approach to estimate unit costs and annual total costs for different types of visits for these illnesses. All costs were collected in Ugandan shillings and Mozambican meticais. Costs are presented in 2021 US dollars.
In Uganda, the highest number of outpatient visits were for children with uncomplicated malaria and of inpatient admissions were for respiratory infections, including pneumonia. The highest unit cost for outpatient visits was for pneumonia (and other respiratory infections) and ranged from $0.5 to 2.3, while the highest unit cost for inpatient admissions was for malaria ($19.6). In Mozambique, the highest numbers of outpatient and inpatient admissions visits were for malaria. The highest unit costs were for malaria too, ranging from $2.5 to 4.2 for outpatient visits and $3.8 for inpatient admissions. The greatest contributors to costs in both countries were drugs and diagnostics, followed by staff.
The findings highlighted the intensive resource use in the treatment of malaria and pneumonia for outpatient and inpatient cases, particularly at higher level health facilities. Timely treatment to prevent severe complications associated with these illnesses can also avoid high costs to health providers, and households.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT01972321.