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Nephrology workforce in China: describing current status and evaluating the optimal capacity based on real-world data
This study aims to characterize the current status of the nephrology workforce in China and evaluate its optimal capacity based on real-world patient mobility data.Methods
Data on nephrologists in China were collected from two prominent online healthcare platforms using web crawlers and natural language processing techniques. Hospitalization records of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) from January 2014 to December 2018 were extracted from a national administrative database in China. City-level paths of patient mobility were identified. Effects of nephrology workforce on patient mobility were analyzed using multivariate Poisson regression models.Results
Altogether 9.13 nephrologists per million population (pmp) were in practice, with substantial city-level variations ranging from 0.16 to 88.79. The ratio of nephrologists to the estimated CKD population was 84.57 pmp. Among 6 415 559 hospitalizations of patients with CKD, 21.3% were cross-city hospitalizations and 7441 city-level paths of patient mobility with more than five hospitalizations were identified. After making adjustment for healthcare capacity, healthcare insurance, economic status, and travel characteristics, the Poisson regression models revealed that the number of nephrologists in both the source city (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.99, per 1 pmp increase) and destination city (IRR 1.07, per 1 pmp increase) were independently associated with patient mobility. An IRR plateau was observed when the number of nephrologists exceeded 12 pmp in the source city, while a rapidly increasing IRR was observed beyond 20 pmp in the destination city.Conclusions
The nephrology workforce in China exhibits significant geographic variations. Based on local healthcare needs, an optimal range of 12–20 nephrologists pmp is suggested.
Assessing the impact of anaesthetic and surgical task-shifting globally: A systematic literature review.
Beyond Astana: Configuring the World Health Organization Collaborating Centres for primary health care.
Resource availability and capacity to implement multi-stranded cholera interventions in the north-east region of Nigeria
Limited healthcare facility (HCF) resources and capacity to implement multi-stranded cholera interventions (water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH), surveillance, case management, and community engagement) can hinder the actualisation of the global strategic roadmap goals for cholera control, especially in settings made fragile by armed conflicts, such as the north-east region of Nigeria. Therefore, we aimed to assess HCF resource availability and capacity to implement these cholera interventions in Adamawa and Bauchi States in Nigeria as well as assess their coordination in both states and Abuja where national coordination of cholera is based.Methods
We conducted a cross-sectional survey using a face-to-face structured questionnaire to collect data on multi-stranded cholera interventions and their respective indicators in HCFs. We generated scores to describe the resource availability of each cholera intervention and categorised them as follows: 0–50 (low), 51–70 (moderate), 71–90 (high), and over 90 (excellent). Further, we defined an HCF with a high capacity to implement a cholera intervention as one with a score equal to or above the average intervention score.Results
One hundred and twenty HCFs (55 in Adamawa and 65 in Bauchi) were surveyed in March 2021, most of which were primary healthcare centres (83%; 99/120). In both states, resource availability for WASH indicators had high to excellent median scores; surveillance and community engagement indicators had low median scores. Median resource availability scores for case management indicators ranged from low to moderate. Coordination of cholera interventions in Adamawa State and Abuja was high but low in Bauchi State. Overall, HCF capacity to implement multi-stranded cholera interventions was high, though higher in Adamawa State than in Bauchi State.Conclusions
The study found a marked variation in HCF resource availability and capacity within locations and by cholera interventions and identified cholera interventions that should be prioritised for strengthening as surveillance and laboratory, case management, and community engagement. The findings support adopting a differential approach to strengthening cholera interventions for better preparedness and response to cholera outbreaks.
Equity and trends in general practitioners’ allocation in China: based on ten years of data from 2012 to 2021
General practitioners (GP) are the gatekeepers of residents' health, 2021 is the 10th year of the establishment of the GP system in China. This study aims to assess the equity and trends of GP allocation in China from 2012 to 2021, summarize the efforts and progress of GPs in China during the decade, predict the development trend of GPs in mainland China in the next 5 years to provide a reference for regional health planning and rational allocation of GPs in China.Methods
Data from 2012 to 2021 on GPs in 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions, and 4 municipalities directly under the central government in mainland China (excluding Hong Kong, Macao, and Taiwan) are collected by us. Gini coefficient, Lorenz curve and health resource agglomeration degree (HRAD) were used to analyze the equity of the allocation of GPs in China from different dimensions, a Grey prediction model was used to forecast the number of GPs in 2022–2026.Results
The number of GPs in mainland China increased from 109 794 to 434 868 from 2012 to 2021, with 3.08 GPs per 10 000 people in 2021. The Gini coefficient of GPs allocation by population in China decreased from 0.312 to 0.147 from 2012 to 2021, while the Gini coefficient of geographic dimension remained between 0.700 and 0.750. Compared with the degree of curvature of the Lorenz curve in the geographic dimension, the degree of curvature of the population and economic dimension were smaller. In 2021, the HRAD in the Eastern region was 4.618, the Central region was 1.493, with different degrees of imbalance among regions, the HRAD/PAD (population agglomeration degree) in the Eastern, Central and Western regions were 1.196, 0.880 and 0.821, respectively. GPs in the Eastern region is still concentrated, while the Central and Western regions were at a similar level, GPs were more scarce. The GM (1,1) model predicts that the number of GPs in mainland China will reach about 720 000 in 2026, the number of GPs per 10 000 people will reach 4.9.Conclusion
After a decade of development, the number of GPs in China has increased significantly. It has reached the goal of the GP system when it was first established. However, the equity of the geographical dimension, both in terms of Gini coefficient and HRAD, has great differences between different regions. The average Gini coefficient at the geographic dimension is 0.723. The average HRAD index was 4.969 in the East and 0.293 in the West. The Western region has the problem of insufficient GP allocation in both population and geographical dimension. In the future, the number of GPs in China will continue to grow rapidly with the support of policies. The “2030” goal, proposed in 2018, is expected to be achieved by 2026. Due to certain factors (such as COVID-19), the actual situation may be different from the predicted results.
Surgical, anesthesia and obstetrics (SAO) workforce production capacity in India: a retrospective analysis of postgraduate and subspecialty training spots
We assessed the SAO production capacity of India i.e., the number of postgraduate (PG) and subspecialty (SS) surgical training spots per 10 million population across multiple specialties and subspecialties at national and state levels.Methods
A retrospective secondary data analysis of PG and SS SAO spots across 36 states for 2018 was conducted using data from the National Health Profile (2019) and census-based population projections. The number of PG & SS SAO spots per 10 million population were calculated, across the states and type of SAO specialty. The ratios of PG spots per 100 MBBS (Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery) spots and SS spots per 100 PG spots were also calculated.Results
There were a total of 13,793 PG and 1350 SS SAO spots available across India, leading to densities of 104.60 and 9.90 per 10 million people, respectively. The PG spot density was higher for General Surgery (23.56), Anesthesia (24.81), and OBGYN (21.55). The SS spot densities were higher for Urology (1.90), Neurosurgery (1.86), and Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery (1.83), The spot density was geographically uneven. For every 100 MBBS spots, there were only 20 PG SAO spots, and for every 100 PG SAO spots, only 9 SS SAO spots were available.Conclusion
India’s SAO workforce production capacity is limited and inadequate to meet Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) SAO workforce targets by 2030. Hence, scale-up of SAO training capacity needs to be carried out with attention to reducing disparities.
Strategies for maintaining and strengthening the health care workers during epidemics: a scoping review
During epidemics such as COVID-19, healthcare workers (HCWs) face several challenges, leading to a shortage and weakening of human resources. To address this issue, employing effective strategies is essential in maintaining and strengthening human resources during outbreaks. This study aimed to gather and classify strategies that could retain and strengthen human health resources during epidemics.Methods
In this scoping review, all studies published about strategies for maintaining and strengthening HCWs in epidemics were collected from 4 international databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and Web of Science. The English language articles published after 2000 up until June 2022 recommended specific strategies regarding the research question. Then, they were analyzed and classified according to thematic analysis based on Braun and Clarke 6 phases protocols.Results
In total, 9405 records were screened, of which 59 articles were included, and their full texts were reviewed. Fifty factors were identified and classified into five themes: Instruction, Protection, Supporting, Caring, and Communication. Most of the suggestions were conducted in high-income countries and related to the Supporting theme.Discussion
The majority of strategies discussed in the literature addressed only one or two aspects of human resources. This study provides a holistic perspective on these issues by providing a thematic map of different strategies for strengthening and maintaining HCWs during epidemics. Considering the multidimensionality of human nature, it is suggested that policymakers and managers of health systems provide facilities that simultaneously address a wide range of needs.
Interprofessional education during international electives: Perceptions of health professions students from selected institutions in Africa.
Implementation and impact of an interprofessional education curriculum on medical, pharmacy, and social work students' attitudes, perceptions, and self-assessed teamwork skills.
Readiness for interprofessional education among healthcare students in Oman: Results of a cross-sectional survey.
Value of pre-licensure interprofessional education on post-licensure interprofessional collaboration: Perceptions and experiences of practicing professionals.
The AdvICE course: leveraging clinician experience in interprofessional education to promote collaborative practice.
The impacts of altruism levels on the job preferences of medical students: a cross-sectional study in China.
Barriers to health care access and utilization among aged indigents under the Livelihood Empowerment Against Poverty Programme (LEAP): the perspective of users and service providers in north-western Ghana.
Traditional birth attendants’ knowledge, preventive and management practices for postpartum haemorrhage in Osun State, Southwestern Nigeria
Traditional birth attendants (TBAs) have become an integral part of the workforce providing delivery services in Nigeria due to the limited number of skilled birth attendants and cultural preferences. This study assessed the knowledge, management and preventive practices regarding postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) among TBAs in selected communities in Osun State, Southwest Nigeria. The study employed a descriptive cross-sectional study design and recruited 260 TBAs in four communities in Osun State. Data were collected by means of an adapted semi-structured questionnaire. Data were analysed using SPSS version 23 and summarized using descriptive and inferential statistics (chi-square and logistic regression) with the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The findings indicated that most (71.4%) of the TBAs were cleric, while others were herbalist (28.6%). Although the majority (76.4%) of the TBAs had good knowledge of the causes and warning signs of PPH, a high percentage (69.3%) of TBAs had poor management practices, while 114 (64.1%) TBAs had inadequate preventive practices. Notably, almost none of the participants practised active management of the third stage of labour; the majority of TBAs did not administer any uterotonic drugs to the mother, nor did they deliver the placenta by controlled cord traction. Gender (P = 0.029), educational level (P = 0.035) and average number of births per month (P = 0.001) significantly influenced TBAs’ management practices. Similarly, the TBA type (P < 0.001), average number of births per month (P = 0.003) and experience with formal training (P = 0.005) showed significant associations with TBAs’ preventive practices. Furthermore, TBAs’ preventive practices towards PPH were influenced by the TBA type (OR: 4.23; 95% CI 1.64–10.90). TBA management practices were also influenced by the TBA type (OR: 4.42; 95% CI 2.03–9.61). Traditional birth attendants in this study had poor management and poor preventive practices for postpartum haemorrhage.
Changes in work conditions and well-being among healthcare professionals in long-term care settings in the Netherlands during the COVID-19 pandemic: a longitudinal study
Healthcare professionals working in long-term care facilities reported heavy job demands and a lack of job resources during the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. However, how job demands and resources in these facilities changed during the pandemic, and how possible changes affected professionals’ work-related well-being, remains unclear. Thus, we explored changes in job demands and resources in the face of surging COVID-19 infection rates, and investigated associations of these changes with changes in burnout and work engagement, among healthcare professionals working in long-term care facilities in the Netherlands.Methods
This longitudinal study was conducted with healthcare professionals working in five long-term care facilities in the Netherlands. Data were collected in early and late 2021, when infection rates in long-term care facilities were low and high (mean, 29.1 and 275.4 infections/day), respectively. In total, 173 healthcare professionals completed the validated Job Demands and Resources Questionnaire, Copenhagen Burnout Inventory, and Utrecht Work Engagement Scale at both timepoints. We performed paired-samples t tests to examine changes in job demands and resources, and fixed-effects linear regression analyses to examine associations of within-person changes in job demands and resources with those in burnout and work engagement.Results
Healthcare professionals perceived increased workloads, associated with increased burnout and decreased work engagement during the study period. Within-person increases in perceived collegial support were associated positively with work engagement and negatively with burnout symptoms.Conclusions
Healthcare professionals in long-term care facilities perceived increased workloads in the wake of surging infection rates during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in increased burnout and decreased work engagement. These changes in burnout and work engagement were also perceived in response to declining collegial support. Efforts to protect the work-related well-being of healthcare professionals working in long-term care facilities in the pandemic context that focus on workload reduction and the promotion of collegial support may be most beneficial.
The impacts of altruism levels on the job preferences of medical students: a cross-sectional study in China
Rational allocation of human resources for health is crucial for ensuring public welfare and equitable access to health services. Understanding medical students’ job preferences could help develop effective strategies for the recruitment and retention of the health workforce. Most studies explore the relationship between extrinsic incentives and job choices through discrete choice experiments (DCEs). Little attention has been paid to the influence of intrinsic altruism on job choice. This study aimed to explore the heterogeneous preferences of medical students with different levels of altruism regarding extrinsic job attributes.Methods
We conducted an online survey with 925 medical students from six hospitals in Beijing from July to September 2021. The survey combined job-choice scenarios through DCEs and a simulation of a laboratory experiment on medical decision-making behavior. Behavioral data were used to quantify altruism levels by estimating altruistic parameters based on a utility function. We fit mixed logit models to estimate the effects of altruism on job preference.Results
All attribute levels had the expected effect on job preferences, among which monthly income (importance weight was 30.46%, 95% CI 29.25%-31.67%) and work location (importance weight was 22.39%, 95% CI 21.14%–23.64%) were the most salient factors. The mean altruistic parameter was 0.84 (s.d. 0.19), indicating that medical students’ altruism was generally high. The subgroup analysis showed that individuals with higher altruism levels had a greater preference for non-financial incentives such as an excellent work environment, sufficient training and career development opportunities, and a light workload. The change in the rate of the uptake of a rural position by individuals with lower levels of altruism is sensitive to changes in financial incentives.Conclusions
Medical students’ altruism was generally high, and those with higher altruism paid more attention to non-financial incentives. This suggests that policymakers and hospital managers should further focus on nonfinancial incentives to better motivate altruistic physicians, in addition to appropriate economic incentive when designing recruitment and retention interventions. Medical school administrations could attach importance to the promotion of altruistic values in medical education.