The global inequity in COVID-19 vaccination coverage among health and care workers

Abstract Background

Health and care workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of COVID-19 response, at high risk of infection, and as a result they are a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination. This paper presents the global patterns in COVID-19 vaccination coverage among HCWs in 2021, how HCWs were prioritized, and identifies factors associated with the early vaccination coverage.

Methods

Using monthly data reported to the World Health Organization, the percentages of partially and fully vaccinated HCWs were computed. The rates of vaccination of HCWs for the first and second half of 2021 were compared in a stratified analysis using several factors. A multivariate analysis was used to investigate the independent associations of these factors with the percentage of HCWs fully vaccinated.

Results

Based on data from 139 Member States, as of end of 2021, 82% HCWs were reported as fully vaccinated with important variations by income groups: 33% for low income countries, 83% for lower-middle income countries, 79% for upper-middle income countries and 88% for high income countries. Overall 76% of countries did not achieve 70% vaccination coverage of their HCWs in the first half of 2021, and 38% of countries by end of 2021. Compared with the general population, the rate of HCWs full vaccination was 3.5 times higher, in particular for low income countries (RR = 5.9). Stratified analysis showed that beyond income group, the availability of vaccine doses was a critical factor of HCWs vaccination coverage with medians of 59.1% and 88.6% coverage in the first and second half of 2021, respectively for countries with enough doses to cover 70% of their population, compared with 0.8% and 47.5% coverage, respectively for countries with doses to cover 40% of their population. The multivariate analysis confirmed this observation with a 35.9% overall difference (95%CI 15.1%; 56.9%) between these two groups.

Conclusion

Despite being considered a priority group, more than a third of countries did not achieve 70% vaccination coverage of their HCWs at the end of 2021. Large inequities were observed with low income countries lagging behind. Additional efforts should be dedicated to ensure full protection of HCWs through vaccination.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Informing investment in health workforce in Bangladesh: a health labour market analysis

Abstract Background

As the 2016 Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 (GSHRH) outlines, health systems can only function with health workforce (HWF). Bangladesh is committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) hence a comprehensive understanding of the existing HWF was deemed necessary informing policy and funding decisions to the health system.

Methods

The health labour market analysis (HLMA) framework for UHC cited in the GSHRH was adopted to analyse the supply, need and demand of all health workers in Bangladesh. Government’s information systems provided data to document the public sector HWF. A national-level assessment (2019) based on a country representative sample of 133 geographical units, served to estimate the composition and distribution of the private sector HWF. Descriptive statistics served to characterize the formal and informal HWF.

Results

The density of doctors, nurses and midwives in Bangladesh was only 9.9 per 10 000 population, well below the indicative sustainable development goals index threshold of 44.5 outlined in the GSHRH. Considering all HWFs in Bangladesh, the estimated total density was 49 per 10 000 population. However, one-third of all HWFs did not hold recognized roles and their competencies were unknown, taking only qualified and recognized HWFs into account results in an estimated density 33.2. With an estimate 75 nurses per 100 doctors in Bangladesh, the second area, where policy attention appears to be warranted is on the competencies and skill-mix. Thirdly, an estimated 82% of all HWFs work in the private sector necessitates adequate oversight for patient safety. Finally, a high proportion of unfilled positions in the public sector, especially in rural areas where 67% of the population lives, account only 11% of doctors and nurses.

Conclusion

Bangladesh is making progress on many of the milestones of the GSHRH, notably, the establishment of the HWF unit and reporting through the national health workforce accounts. However, particular investment on strengthening the intersectoral HWF coordination across sectors; regulation for assurance of patient safety and adequate oversight of the private sector; establishing accreditation mechanisms for training institutions; and halving inequalities in access to a qualified HWF are important towards advancing UHC in Bangladesh.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Nurses’ steps, distance traveled, and perceived physical demands in a three-shift schedule

Abstract Background

The physical job demands of hospital nurses are known to be very high. Although many studies have measured the physical activities of nurses subjectively using questionnaires, it remains necessary to quantify and measure nurses’ physical activity at work using objective indicators. This study was conducted to address this gap in the literature by analyzing nurses’ physical activity using both objective measurements and subjective perceptions. The number of steps, distance traveled, and actual work hours were measured during work, and the influence of related factors was analyzed.

Methods

Using a cross-sectional design, survey and activity tracking data were collected from nurses who worked in three shifts in two tertiary hospitals located in the capital region of South Korea. The participants comprised 117 nurses working in four different units (medical ward, surgical ward, intensive care unit, emergency room), and data from 351 shifts were used in the final analysis. Between-group differences in the main variables were analyzed using the t-test, the Mann–Whitney test, analysis of variance, or the Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate. The relationships were examined through multiple linear regression analysis.

Results

The average number of steps and distance traveled were greatest for nurses working in the emergency room, followed by the intensive care unit, surgical ward, and medical ward (in descending order). Younger nurses and those with shorter unit experience tended to have the greatest number of steps and distance traveled.

Conclusion

Using activity trackers, this study derived physical activity measures such as number of steps and distance traveled, enabling an objective examination of physical activity during shifts. Nurses’ level of physical activity differed depending on the type of nursing unit, nurses’ age, and unit experience. These results suggest the need for support programs that are specific to the job demands of specific nursing units.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Considerations for Faculty and Presenters in Interprofessional Continuing Education.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 07/10/2022 - 05:36
Interprofessional (IP) continuing education (IPCE) has evolved to focus on team performance and a commitment to education delivery that enables team members to learn from, with, and about each other. Evidence shows substantial benefits from IPCE that improve team-work, care delivery, and patient outcomes. Continuing professional development and IPCE faculty and presenters play a key role in IPCE and must understand the tenets of IPCE and how to facilitate the learning of an IP team. This column will focus on the role of faculty and presenters in IPCE activities to enhance effective collaboration and improve health outcomes. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(10):432-435.].

Is interprofessional education a valued contributor to interprofessional practice and collaboration within allied health in Australia and New Zealand: A scoping review.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 07/10/2022 - 05:36
Research on the value of interprofessional education (IPE), collaboration and practice in the health sector at both a pre- and post-registration level has increased in recent years. A scoping review of Australian and New Zealand studies was conducted on the value of IPE to interprofessional practice in allied health professionals from 2013 to 2019. A scoping review framework was used to identify 109 studies. Twenty-one articles met the eligibility criteria. The studies were grouped into undergraduate students in academic and WIL settings, allied health professionals and clinical educators. Results suggest that IPE is necessary for the maintenance of interprofessional practice and that it is strongly connected to the development of successful communication within the interprofessional environment. Authentic IPE experience and socialization opportunities appear to be major facilitators of interprofessional practice but no consensus regarding the ideal length of time or timing of IPE was found. The studies also provided an insight into facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of IPE and interprofessional practice in rural environments. As IPE has been shown to contribute to improved interprofessional practice and patient outcomes, future research should explore how to create IPE opportunities for implementation within rural communities where adequate resourcing is most challenged.

Evaluating the effects of supplementing ward nurses on quality of newborn care in Kenyan neonatal units: protocol for a prospective workforce intervention study.

BACKGROUND: Data from High Income Countries have now linked low nurse staff to patient ratios to poor quality patient care. Adequately staffing hospitals is however still a challenge in resource-constrained Low-middle income countries (LMICs) and poor staff-to-patient ratios are largely taken as a norm. This in part relates to limited evidence on the relationship between staffing and quality of patient care in these settings and also an absence of research on benefits that might occur from improving hospital staff numbers in LMICs. This study will determine the effect on the quality of patient care of prospectively adding extra nursing staff to newborn units in a resource constrained LMIC setting and describe the relationship between staffing and quality of care. METHODS: This prospective workforce intervention study will involve a multi-method approach. We will conduct a before and after study in newborn units of 4 intervention hospitals and a single time-point comparison in 4 non-intervention hospitals to determine if there is a change in the level of missed nursing care, a process measure of the quality of patient care. We will also determine the effect of our intervention on routinely collected quality indicators using interrupted time series analysis. Using three nurse staffing metrics (Total nursing hours, nursing hours per patient day and nursing hours per patient per shift), we will describe the relationship between staffing and the quality of patient care. DISCUSSION: There is an urgent need for the implementation of staffing policies in resource constrained LMICs that are guided by relevant contextual data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the prospective addition of nursing staff in resource-constrained care settings. Our findings are likely to provide the much-needed evidence for better staffing in these settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry ( https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/Default.aspx?Logout=True ) database on the 10th of June 2022 with a unique identification number-PACTR202206477083141.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Health supply chain system in Uganda: assessment of status and of performance of health facilities

Abstract Background

Health supply chain systems are essential for effective and efficient healthcare system by ensuring availability of quality essential medicines and health supplies. While several interventions have been made to ensure the availability of quality essential medicines and health supplies, health facilities continue to report stockouts in Uganda.

Objectives

This study aimed to assess the status and performance of the supply chain system across all levels of care in health facilities in Uganda.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 128 public and private-not-for-profit health facilities across 48 districts in Uganda. These facilities included all levels of care from Health Centres II, III, IV, general and referral hospitals, and national referral hospitals. Data were collected using desk reviews, health facility surveys, and key informant interviews with key personnel. Stock registers were reviewed to assess the availability of a basket of essential medicines based on the essential medicines list of the Ministry of Health.

Results

Less than half (42%) of health facilities had computer hardware. Most (84%) of health facilities were using a form of Logistics Management Information System with only (6%) were using the Electronic Logistics Management Information System. Just under a third (33%) of health information officers and (51%) of public health officers’ positions were filled in the health facilities. Nearly (66%) of health facilities used supply chain data to support decision-making. Most (84%) of health facilities reported stockouts of Essential Medicines and Health Supplies in the past 6 months. The main reasons for stockouts were (59%) a sudden increase in demand (40%) delivery gaps/delayed deliveries and (35%) discrepancies in orders and deliveries. Health facilities responded to stockouts through various means including (75%) redistribution (43%) purchased from a distributor, and (30%) placing emergency orders.

Conclusions

The findings from this study show that the performance of health facilities in different supply chain processes and functions was defective. To improve the supply chain performance of health facilities, it is important to invest in infrastructure development, provide computer hardware and internet connection and strengthen  the capacity key personnel. This is key for ensuring full functionality of the supply chain and availability of quality medicines and health supplies to the end-user.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Evaluating the effects of supplementing ward nurses on quality of newborn care in Kenyan neonatal units: protocol for a prospective workforce intervention study

Abstract Background

Data from High Income Countries have now linked low nurse staff to patient ratios to poor quality patient care. Adequately staffing hospitals is however still a challenge in resource-constrained Low-middle income countries (LMICs) and poor staff-to-patient ratios are largely taken as a norm. This in part relates to limited evidence on the relationship between staffing and quality of patient care in these settings and also an absence of research on benefits that might occur from improving hospital staff numbers in LMICs. This study will determine the effect on the quality of patient care of prospectively adding extra nursing staff to newborn units in a resource constrained LMIC setting and describe the relationship between staffing and quality of care.

Methods

This prospective workforce intervention study will involve a multi-method approach. We will conduct a before and after study in newborn units of 4 intervention hospitals and a single time-point comparison in 4 non-intervention hospitals to determine if there is a change in the level of missed nursing care, a process measure of the quality of patient care. We will also determine the effect of our intervention on routinely collected quality indicators using interrupted time series analysis. Using three nurse staffing metrics (Total nursing hours, nursing hours per patient day and nursing hours per patient per shift), we will describe the relationship between staffing and the quality of patient care.

Discussion

There is an urgent need for the implementation of staffing policies in resource constrained LMICs that are guided by relevant contextual data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the prospective addition of nursing staff in resource-constrained care settings. Our findings are likely to provide the much-needed evidence for better staffing in these settings.

Trial registration

This study was retrospectively registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry (https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/Default.aspx?Logout=True) database on the 10th of June 2022 with a unique identification number-PACTR202206477083141.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The impact of human resources for health on the health outcomes of Chinese people.

Human resources for health (HRH) is a cornerstone in the medical system. This paper combined data envelopment analysis (DEA) with Tobit regression analysis to evaluate the efficiency of health care services in China over the years between 2007 and 2019. Efficiency was first estimated by using DEA with the choice of inputs and outputs being specific to health care services and residents' health status. Malmquist index model was selected for estimating the changes in total factor productivity of provinces and exploring whether their performance had improved over the years. Tobit regression model was then employed in which the efficiency score obtained from the DEA computations used as the dependent variable, and HRH was chosen as the independent variables. The results showed that all kinds of health personnel had a significantly positive impact on the efficiency, and more importantly, pharmacists played a critical role in affecting both the provincial and national efficiency. Therefore, the health sector should pay more attention to optimizing allocation of HRH and focusing on professional training of clinical pharmacists.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Defining and classifying co-curricular interprofessional education in the health professions: a scoping review protocol.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 03/10/2022 - 05:32
OBJECTIVE: This scoping review will identify, characterize, and classify co-curricular interprofessional education activities and practices. INTRODUCTION: According to the World Health Organization, interprofessional education occurs when students from two or more professions learn about, from, and with one another to enable effective collaboration and improve health outcomes. As such, interprofessional education is imperative to health professions education. Globally, competency frameworks and guidelines have urged educators to reach consensus about interprofessional education terminology and to integrate this form of education into formal curricula. Voluntary interprofessional education that takes place outside formal curricula (ie, co-curricular) is frequently used to overcome well-documented barriers (eg, discordant academic calendars). We will explore the global literature to identify, characterize, and classify published examples of co-curricular interprofessional education activities. INCLUSION CRITERIA: This review will consider voluntary interprofessional education involving students from at least two different health professions. These education activities will take place outside the formal curriculum and will not result in transcript designation. METHODS: The search strategy will aim to locate primary studies from peer-reviewed journals indexed in MEDLINE, CINAHL, Scopus, ERIC, and Academic Search Complete. The results will be limited to English-language publications from 2009 until the present. Two independent reviewers will screen titles and abstracts, and potentially relevant papers will be assessed in detail. Data will be extracted using a tool developed by the reviewers. Descriptive statistics will be used to characterize the data, which will be presented in diagrammatic, tabular, or other relevant formats.

Faculty Perspective on Interprofessional Education Competencies: Respiratory Therapy Compared to Other Allied Health Professions.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 03/10/2022 - 05:32
BACKGROUND: Interprofessional Education (IPE) provides a framework for collaborative education between health care specialties to improve patient care. In 2010, the Interprofessional Education Collaborative Expert Panel established the competencies of communication, ethics, roles and responsibilities, and teams and teamwork. Studies have assessed knowledge and attitudes about IPE in several allied health educational programs including respiratory therapy (RT). METHODS: We compared RT faculty to athletic training (AT), nutrition (NT), occupational therapy (OT), physical therapy (PT), and dental hygiene (DH) faculty. Faculty were asked to rank the IPE competencies according to importance. RESULTS: RT faculty ranked communication first, then teams and teamwork, roles and responsibilities, and last ethics. A Kruskal-Wallis Dwass-Steel-Chritchlow-Fligner pairwise analysis showed statically significant differences among allied health faculty rankings of IPE competencies. In communication, RT faculty responded statistically higher than AT (P < .001), DH P < .001), NT P < .001), and OT (P = .003). In ethics, RT faculty responded statistically lower than DH (P < .001), NT (P = .01), and PT (P < .001). In roles and responsibilities, RT faculty responded statistically higher than AT (P = .007) and OT (P < .001). In teamwork, RT faculty responded statistically higher than AT (P = .02), DH (P < .001), OT (P = .002), and PT (P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: RT faculty who teach at different degree levels (associate's degree programs vs bachelor's and master's degree programs) had the same ranking of competencies, but they had a statistically significant difference for teamwork, with associate's degree faculty ranking teamwork lower than bachelor's and master's degree faculty.

The impact of human resources for health on the health outcomes of Chinese people

Abstract

Human resources for health (HRH) is a cornerstone in the medical system. This paper combined data envelopment analysis (DEA) with Tobit regression analysis to evaluate the efficiency of health care services in China over the years between 2007 and 2019. Efficiency was first estimated by using DEA with the choice of inputs and outputs being specific to health care services and residents’ health status. Malmquist index model was selected for estimating the changes in total factor productivity of provinces and exploring whether their performance had improved over the years. Tobit regression model was then employed in which the efficiency score obtained from the DEA computations used as the dependent variable, and HRH was chosen as the independent variables. The results showed that all kinds of health personnel had a significantly positive impact on the efficiency, and more importantly, pharmacists played a critical role in affecting both the provincial and national efficiency. Therefore, the health sector should pay more attention to optimizing allocation of HRH and focusing on professional training of clinical pharmacists.

Categorías: Investigaciones

A national analysis of the pharmacy workforce in Indonesia

Abstract Background

Pharmacists play a fundamental role in healthcare systems and achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) through quality primary healthcare service provision. While the World Health Organization (WHO) forecasts a global shortage of health workforce by 2030, mainly affecting low- and middle-income nations (LMICs), limited published literature is found regarding pharmacy workforce capacity in LMICs, including Indonesia. This paper aims to analyse pharmacists’ capacity in Indonesia to identify emerging workforce planning gaps for future workforce planning and policies in Indonesia.

Method

Several data sources were accessed, including a database from the National Pharmacy Committee and the professional leadership body in Indonesia. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages, and mean), correlational and time-series analysis using curve estimation were conducted. Secondary data on the number of programmes, pharmacy students, pharmacy workforce (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) per province were obtained from the Ministry websites and reports.

Result

There were a total of 77 191 registered pharmacists in Indonesia in 2019. The pharmacists’ pyramid showed a youth bulge as a general indication of market expansion in the education sector correlating to the pharmacy programme’s number and size. There was a variation in pharmacy workforce density and access to pharmacy programmes across islands, which also were strongly correlated. Forecasting estimates that by 2030, women will represent around 86% of pharmacists in Indonesia. More female pharmacists were found working in the hospital and primary healthcare (providing direct services to patients) than male pharmacists. Younger pharmacists worked in the industrial sector, while older pharmacists worked in governmental and educational institutions.

Conclusion

This study signposted workforce planning gaps for policy development in Indonesia, including a need to develop structured training to support early career pharmacists in their practice. There is also a need for better access to professional development programmes designed to support female pharmacists return to the regulated workforce following career breaks. National policy to promote equitable distribution and retention of pharmacists is recommended.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Promoting Person-Centered Care for Health Baccalaureate Students: Piloting an Interprofessional Education Approach to Wound Management.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 26/09/2022 - 05:25
OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the implementation of a wound management interprofessional education experience for nursing, podiatry, pharmacy, and exercise and nutrition science health baccalaureate students. The disciplines outside of nursing were invited to join the classes of a wound care elective unit in nursing. METHODS: This study included the development and implementation of a wound care program and observation of all students enrolled in the health disciplines where wound management education was relevant. RESULTS: Results indicated an increase in students' recognition of their roles and the roles of others within an interprofessional healthcare team. Facilitators reported that students learned to share information and work collaboratively to plan care for people with wounds. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes confirm that the structured wound management program of interprofessional education within a Faculty of Health course promoted student recognition of wound management and the essential shared approach to person-centered care.

Telehealth Interventions for HIV in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Abstract Purpose of review

This review summarizes technology-based interventions for HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We highlight potential benefits and challenges to using telehealth in LMICs and propose areas for future study.

Recent findings

We identified several models for using telehealth to expand HIV health care access in LMICs, including telemedicine visits for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, telementoring programs for providers, and virtual peer-support groups. Emerging data support the acceptability and feasibility of these strategies. However, further investigations are needed to determine whether these models are scalable and sustainable in the face of barriers related to cost, infrastructure, and regulatory approval.

Summary

HIV telehealth interventions may be a valuable approach to addressing gaps along the HIV care cascade in LMICs. Future studies should focus on strategies for expanding existing programs to scale and for assessing long-term clinical outcomes.

Categorías: Investigaciones

A global overview of healthcare workers’ turnover intention amid COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review with future directions

Abstract Background

Globally, the health workforce has long suffered from labour shortages. This has been exacerbated by the workload increase caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Major collapses in healthcare systems across the world during the peak of the pandemic led to calls for strategies to alleviate the increasing job attrition problem within the healthcare sector. This turnover may worsen given the overwhelming pressures experienced by the health workforce during the pandemic, and proactive measures should be taken to retain healthcare workers. This review aims to examine the factors affecting turnover intention among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods

A mixed studies systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 2020 to March 2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s Critical Appraisal Tools and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version 2018 were applied by two independent researchers to critically appraise the methodological quality. Findings were synthesised using a convergent integrated approach and categorised thematically.

Results

Forty-three studies, including 39 quantitative, two qualitative and two mixed methods studies were included in this review. Eighteen were conducted in the Middle East, ten in the Americas, nine in the Asia–Pacific region and six in Europe. Nurses (n = 35) were included in the majority of the studies, while physicians (n = 13), allied health workers (n = 11) and healthcare administrative or management staff (n = 7) were included in a smaller proportion. Five themes emerged from the data synthesis: (1) fear of COVID-19 exposure, (2) psychological responses to stress, (3) socio-demographic characteristics, (4) adverse working conditions, and (5) organisational support.

Conclusions

A wide range of factors influence healthcare workers’ turnover intention in times of pandemic. Future research should be more focused on specific factors, such as working conditions or burnout, and specific vulnerable groups, including migrant healthcare workers and healthcare profession minorities, to aid policymakers in adopting strategies to support and incentivise them to retain them in their healthcare jobs.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Comparison of simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interprofessional education in improving the learning outcomes of medical and nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 22/09/2022 - 05:21
BACKGROUND: Use of interprofessional education has greatly expanded and is widely used to foster interprofessional collaborative practice competency in health professionals, especially during medical emergencies. Identifying the interprofessional education delivery mode that can maximize learning outcomes within available resources is crucial for achieving the sustainability of an interprofessional education program. OBJECTIVES: To examine the learning outcomes of simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education modules and to analyze the variable costs between these two interprofessional education modules. DESIGN: A prospective quasi-experimental study. SETTING: A medical university in Northern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: 24 medical students and 48 nursing students enrolled in a 4-week simulation-based interprofessional education or video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education program. METHODS: Students' medical task performance, critical medical task performance, team behavior performance, and interprofessional collaboration attitude were examined at the pretest and posttest by using an objective structured checklist and team performance rating scale with a hands-on simulation model and structured questionnaires. The variable costs for simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education were estimated upon the completion of the course. RESULTS: All learning outcomes significantly improved for both the groups from the pretest to posttest. After the intervention, the simulation-based interprofessional education group exhibited significantly higher scores in medical task performance, critical medical task performance and team behavior performance than the video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education group at the posttest. No significant difference was noted in interprofessional collaboration attitude between the groups. Cost analysis revealed that the simulation-based interprofessional education program was approximately two times more expensive in terms of staffing costs and required 1.3 times greater space charges than the video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education program. CONCLUSION: Both simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education modules effectively improved medical and nursing students' medical task performance, critical medical task performance and team behavior performance. The simulation-based interprofessional education group had more favorable learning outcomes, but the associated costs were higher. Educators should consider both learning outcomes and cost when choosing a design strategy simulation-based interprofessional education vs. video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education for interprofessional education module development.

Teaching staff in interprofessional education: A proposed terminology.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 22/09/2022 - 05:21
Different terms (e.g., interprofessional, multiprofessional, interdisciplinary) are used in interprofessional education and collaboration without sufficient differentiation or precision in regard to meaning. In recent years academic publications in English and German have contributed to clarifying this issue. However, there are no definitions internationally or in the German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) specifically referring to the people engaged in teaching interprofessional education. Teaching in interprofessional education has evolved from the traditional role of expert to one of mentor or facilitator. It is also evident that those who teach play a central role in the success of interprofessional courses. While many different designations are used to refer to interprofessional teachers in the relevant literature and in the language of daily use, a uniform and adequate terminology should be used to refer to such teaching staff. Based on literature reviews, this commentary seeks to propose terms for teaching staff active in the area of interprofessional education and thus provide a basis for discussion in the German-speaking countries. Taking the results of the literature analysis and the roles of teachers in interprofessional settings into consideration, we propose that the English term "IP facilitator" (IP for interprofessional) should also be used in the German-speaking world and "facilitateur IP" in the French-speaking world. A French translation is included in attachment 1 to enable broader discussion in Switzerland.

Population health trends analysis and burden of disease profile observed in Sierra Leone from 1990 to 2017

Abstract Background

Sierra Leone, in West Africa, is one of the poorest developing countries in the world. Sierra Leone has experienced several recent challenges namely, a civil war from 1991 to 2002, a massive Ebola outbreak from 2014 to 2016, followed by floods and landslides in 2017.In this study, we quantified the burden of disease in Sierra Leone over a 27-year period, from 1990 to 2017.

Methodology

In this descriptive study, we analysed secondary data from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. We quantified patterns of burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors in Sierra Leone. We report GBD data and metrics including mortality rates, years of life lost and risk factors for all ages and both sexes from 1990 to 2017.

Results

From 1990 to 2017, trends of mortality rates for all ages and sexes have declined in Sierra Leone although mortality rates remain some of the highest when compared to other developing countries. The burden of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases are greater than the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to the prevalence of endemic diseases in Sierra Leone. The most important CMNNs associated with premature mortality included respiratory infections, neglected tropical diseases, malaria, and HIV-Aids. Life expectancy has increased from 37 to 52 years.

Conclusion

Sierra Leone’s health status is gradually improving following the civil war and Ebola outbreak. Sierra Leone has a double burden of disease with CMNNs leading and NCDs progressively increasing. Despite these challenges, Sierra Leone has promising initiatives and programs pursuing the Universal Health Coverage 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goals Agenda. There is need for accountability of available resources, clear rules and expected roles for non-governmental organisations to ensure a level playing field for all actors to rebuild the health system.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Virtual Campus for Public Health (VCPH): Bringing knowledge to practice

The Virtual Campus for Public Health (VCPH) is the educational platform of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Its objective is to lead strategic collaborative efforts among Member States and other partners to promote the training of human resources for health, for all people everywhere. The VCPH is structured in three nodes (regional, subregional, national) and it responds to the Strategy on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. It works in coordination with the technical departments at PAHO, with the PAHO/WHO country offices in the Region, as well as with institutions that work on public health education and training. All VCPH courses are open access for participants and reflect PAHO's technical cooperation areas. The VCPH offers courses in PAHO’s four official languages: English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Categorías: Investigaciones

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