Agregador de canales de noticias
Trend and spatial clustering of medical education in Brazil: an ecological study of time series from 2010 to 2021
Studies that analyze the temporal trend and spatial clustering of medical education indicators are scarce, especially in developing countries such as Brazil. This analysis is essential to subsidize more equitable policies for the medical workforce in the states and regions of Brazil. Thus, this study aimed to analyze the temporal trend and identify spatial clusters of medical education indicators in Brazil disaggregated by public and private education, states, and regions.Methods
A time-series ecological study was conducted using data from the Higher Education Census of the Ministry of Education from 2010 to 2021. The study analyzed vacancy density indicators of active and former students/100,000 population, disaggregated by public and private education, 27 states, and 5 regions in Brazil. Prais-Winsten regression was used for trend analyses of indicators. Hot Spot Analysis (Getis-Ord Gi*) was used to identify spatial clusters of indicators.Results
The number of medical schools increased by 102.2% between 2010 and 2021. A total of 366 medical schools offered 54,870 vacancies at the end of 2021. Vacancy density and active and former students increased significantly in the period, but this increase was greater in private institutions. Most states and regions showed an increasing trend in the indicators, with higher increase percentages in private than in public schools. Hot spot spaces changed over time, concentrated in the southeast, center-west, and north at the end of 2021. Medical education remains uneven in Brazil, with a low provision in regions with low socioeconomic development, academic structure, and health services, represented by regions in the north and northeast.Conclusions
There is a growing trend in medical education indicators in Brazil, especially in the private sector. Spatial clusters were found predominantly in the southeast, center-west, and north. These results indicate the need for more equitable medical education planning between the regions.
A novel approach to estimate the impact of health workforce investments on health outcomes through increased coverage of HIV, TB and malaria services
Globally, HIV, TB and malaria account for an estimated three million deaths annually. The Global Fund partnered with the World Health Organization to assist countries with health workforce planning in these areas through the development of an integrated health workforce investment impact tool. Our study illustrates the development of a user-friendly tool (with two MS Excel calculator subcomponents) that computes associations between human resources for health (HRH) investment inputs and reduced morbidity and mortality from HIV, TB, and malaria via increased coverage of effective treatment services.Methods
We retrieved from the peer-reviewed literature quantitative estimates of the relation among HRH inputs and HRH employment and productivity. We converted these values to additional full-time-equivalent doctors, nurses and midwives (DNMs). We used log-linear regression to estimate the relation between DNMs and treatment service coverage outcomes for HIV, TB, and malaria. We then retrieved treatment effectiveness parameters from the literature to calculate lives saved due to expanded treatment coverage for HIV, TB, and malaria. After integrating these estimates into the tool, we piloted it in four countries.Results
In most countries with a considerable burden of HIV, TB, and malaria, the health workforce investments include a mix of pre-service education, full remuneration of new hires, various forms of incentives and in-service training. These investments were associated with elevated HIV, TB and malaria treatment service coverage and additional lives saved. The country case studies we developed in addition, indicate the feasibility and utility of the tool for a variety of international and local actors interested in HRH planning.Conclusions
The modelled estimates developed for illustrative purposes and tested through country case studies suggest that HRH investments result in lives saved across HIV, TB, and malaria. Furthermore, findings show that attainment of high targets of specific treatment coverage indicators would require a substantially greater health workforce than what is currently available in most LMICs. The open access tool can assist with future HRH planning efforts, particularly in LMICs.
Doctors’ alertness, contentedness and calmness before and after night shifts: a latent profile analysis
While night shifts are crucial for patient care, they threaten doctors’ well-being and performance. Knowledge of how the impact of night shifts differs for doctors is needed to attenuate the adverse effects of night shifts. This study aimed to obtain more precise insight into doctors’ feelings surrounding night shift by: identifying profiles based on doctors’ alertness, contentedness and calmness scores before and after night shifts (research question (RQ) 1); assessing how doctors’ pre- and post-shift profiles change (RQ2); and determining associations of doctors’ demographics and shift circumstances with alertness, contentedness and calmness change (RQ3).Methods
Latent Profile Analysis using doctors’ pre- and post-shift self-rated alertness, contentedness and calmness scores was employed to identify pre- and post-shift profiles (RQ1). A cross-tabulation revealed pre- and post-shift profile changes (RQ2). Multiple regressions determined associations of demographics (i.e. age, sex, specialty) and night shift circumstances (i.e. hours worked pre-call, hours awake pre-call, shift duration, number of consecutive shifts, total hours of sleep) with alertness, contentedness and calmness change (RQ3).Results
In total, 211 doctors participated with a mean age of 39.8 ± 10 years; 47.4% was male. The participants included consultants (46.4%) and trainees (53.6%) of the specialties surgery (64.5%) and obstetrics/gynaecology (35.5%). Three pre-shift (Indifferent, Ready, Engaged) and four post-shift profiles (Lethargic, Tired but satisfied, Excited, Mindful) were found. Most doctors changed from Ready to Tired but satisfied, with alertness reducing most. Age, specialty, sleep, shift duration and the number of consecutive shifts associated with alertness, contentedness and calmness changes.Conclusions
The results provided nuanced insight into doctors’ feelings before and after night shifts. Future research may assess whether specific subgroups benefit from tailored interventions.
Examining the absorption of post-internship medical officers into the public sector at county-level in devolved Kenya: a qualitative case study
After Kenya’s decentralization and constitutional changes in 2013, 47 devolved county governments are responsible for workforce planning and recruitment including for doctors/medical officers (MO). Data from the Ministry of Health suggested that less than half of these MOs are being absorbed by the public sector between 2015 and 2018. We aimed to examine how post-internship MOs are absorbed into the public sector at the county-level, as part of a broader project focusing on Kenya’s human resources for health.Methods
We employed a qualitative case study design informed by a simplified health labour market framework. Data included interviews with 30 MOs who finished their internship after 2018, 10 consultants who have supervised MOs, and 51 county/sub-county-level managers who are involved in MOs’ planning and recruitment. A thematic analysis approach was used to examine recruitment processes, outcomes as well as perceived demand and supply.Results
We found that Kenya has a large mismatch between supply and demand for MOs. An increasing number of medical schools are offering training in medicine while the demand for MOs in the county-level public sector has not been increasing at the same pace due to fiscal resource constraints and preference for other workforce cadres. The local Department of Health put in requests and participate in interviews but do not lead the recruitment process and respondents suggested that it can be subject to political interference and corruption. The imbalance of supply and demand is leading to unemployment, underemployment and migration of post-internship MOs with further impacts on MOs’ wages and contract conditions, especially in the private sector.Conclusion
The mismatched supply and demand of MO accompanied by problematic recruitment processes led to many MOs not being absorbed by the public sector and subsequent unemployment and underemployment. Although Kenya has ambitious workforce norms, it may need to take a more pragmatic approach and initiate constructive policy dialogue with stakeholders spanning the education, public and private health sectors to better align MO training, recruitment and management.
Expanding Community Health Worker decision space: learning from a Participatory Action Research training intervention in a rural South African district
While integral to decentralising health reforms, Community Health Workers (CHWs) in South Africa experience many challenges. During COVID-19, CHW roles changed rapidly, shifting from communities to clinics. In the contexts of new roles and re-engineered primary healthcare (PHC), the objectives were to: (a) implement a training intervention to support local decision-making capability of CHWs; and (b) assess learning and impacts from the perspectives of CHWs.Methods
CHWs from three rural villages (n = 9) were trained in rapid Participatory Action Research (PAR) with peers and community stakeholders (n = 33). Training equipped CHWs with tools and techniques to convene community groups, raise and/or respond to local health concerns, understand concerns from different perspectives, and facilitate action in communities and public services. CHWs’ perspectives before and after the intervention were gained through semi-structured interviews. Data were collected and analysed using the decision space framework to understand local actors’ power to affect devolved decision-making.Results
CHWs demonstrated significant resilience and commitment in the face of COVID-19. They experienced multiple, intersecting challenges including: limited financial, logistical and health systems support, poor role clarity, precarious employment, low and no pay, unstable organisational capacity, fragile accountability mechanisms and belittling treatment in clinics. Together, these restricted decision space and were seen to reflect a low valuing of the cadre in the system. CHWs saw the training as a welcome opportunity to assert themselves as a recognised cadre. Regular, spaces for dialogue and mutual learning supported CHWs to gain tools and skills to rework their agency in more empowered ways. The training improved management capacity, capabilities for dialogue, which expanded role clarity, and strengthened community mobilisation, facilitation and analysis skills. Development of public speaking skills was especially valued. CHWs reported an overall ‘tripe-benefit’ from the training: community-acceptance; peer support; and dialogue with and recognition by the system. The training intervention was recommended for scale-up by the health authority as an implementation support strategy for PHC.Conclusions
Lack of recognition of CHWs is coupled with limited opportunities for communication and trust-building. The training supported CHWs to find and amplify their voices in strategic partnerships, and helped build functionality for local decision-making.
Consistency and quality in written accreditation protocols for pediatrician training programs: a mixed-methods analysis of a global sample, and directions for improvement
The World Federation for Medical Education (WFME) defines accreditation as 'certification of the suitability of medical education programs, and of…competence…in the delivery of medical education.' Accreditation bodies function at national, regional and global levels. In 2015, WFME published quality standards for accreditation of postgraduate medical education (PGME). We compared accreditation of pediatric PGME programs to these standards to understand variability in accreditation and areas for improvement.Methods
We examined 19 accreditation protocols representing all country income levels and world regions. For each, two raters assessed 36 WFME-defined accreditation sub-areas as present, partially present, or absent. When rating “partially present” or “absent”, raters noted the rationale for the rating. Using an inductive approach, authors qualitatively analyzed notes, generating themes in reasons for divergence from the benchmark.Results
A median of 56% (IQR 43–77%) of WFME sub-areas were present in individual protocols; 22% (IQR 15–39%) were partially present; and 8.3% (IQR 5.5–21%) were absent. Inter-rater agreement was 74% (SD 11%). Sub-areas least addressed included number of trainees, educational expertise, and performance of qualified doctors. Qualitative themes of divergence included (1) variation in protocols related to heterogeneity in program structure; (2) limited engagement with stakeholders, especially regarding educational outcomes and community/health system needs; (3) a trainee-centered approach, including equity considerations, was not universal; and (4) less emphasis on quality of education, particularly faculty development in teaching.Conclusions
Heterogeneity in accreditation can be appropriate, considering cultural or regulatory context. However, we identified broadly applicable areas for improvement: ensuring equitable access to training, taking a trainee-centered approach, emphasizing quality of teaching, and ensuring diverse stakeholder feedback.
Impact of compensation and willingness to keep same career path on burnout among long-term care workers in Japan
This study examined the relationships between compensation, willingness to keep same career path, and burnout among long-term care workers in Japan.Methods
Data were collected from 319 care workers at long-term care facilities in Japan. The study variables included data on demographics, compensation, willingness to keep same career path, and burnout.Results
The study found that compensation and willingness to keep same career were significantly negatively associated with burnout levels among long-term care workers in Japan. Long-term care workers with high compensation levels were found to be more likely to have low burnout levels. In addition, care workers who expressed an intention to keep same career path were likely to have low burnout levels. In addition, compensation is associated with burnout as the mediating role of willingness to keep same career.Conclusions
These results highlight the importance of implementing policies and measures that reduce the risk of burnout among care workers to improve the quality of care. Strategies for improving working conditions include increasing wages, increasing compensation for experienced care workers, and reorganizing benefits.
An exploration of health workers’ experiences in providing bereavement care to mothers following a stillbirth: results from a subnational level health system in Uganda
Stillbirth is a profound emotion-laden event to the mothers and health workers who provide care due to its sudden and unexpected occurrence. Health workers offering support in regions shouldering the highest-burden experience providing support to a stillbirth mother in their professional lifetime. However, their experiences seldom get documented as much of the focus is on mothers causing a dissonance between parental and clinical priorities. This study aimed to explore the health worker’s experiences in the provision of bereavement care to mothers following a stillbirth.Methods
An exploratory cross-sectional qualitative study was undertaken on a purposively selected sample of key informants drawn from frontline health workers and health systems managers providing maternal health services at a subnational level health system in Uganda. An interview guide was used to collect data with the audio-recorded interviews transcribed using Microsoft office word. Atlas. ti a qualitative data management software aided in coding with analysis following a thematic content analysis technique.Results
There was no specialised bereavement care provided due to inadequate skills, knowledge of content, resources and support supervision for the same. However, health workers improvised within the available resources to comfort mothers upon news of a stillbirth. Disclosure to mothers about the stillbirth loss often took the form of forewarnings, direct and sometimes delayed disclosure. A feeling of unpreparedness to initiate the disclosure process to the mother was common while the whole experience had an emotional effect on the health workers when establishing the cause, particularly for cases without clear risk factors. The emotional breakdown was often a reflexive response from the mothers which equally affected the care providers. Health workers engaged in comforting and rebuilding the mothers to transition through the loss and validate the loss. Efforts to identify the skills and health systems gaps for address were a common response targeted at improving the quality of maternal healthcare services to avert similar occurrences in the future.Conclusion
Providing care to mothers after stillbirth was an emotional and challenging experience for health workers requiring different approaches to disclosure and provision of emotional support. The aspect of specialised bereavement care was lacking within the current response. Reflection of unpreparedness to handle the tasks demonstrates a deficit in the required skills. It is a critical gap missing hence calling for dedicated efforts to address it. Targeting efforts to improve health workers’ competencies and preparedness to manage grieving mothers is one way to approach it.
Characterizing worker compensation claims in long-term care and examining the association between facility characteristics and severe injury: a repeated cross-sectional study from Alberta, Canada
Despite the physical demands and risks inherent to working in long-term care (LTC), little is known about workplace injuries and worker compensation claims in this setting. The purpose of this study was to characterize workplace injuries in LTC and to estimate the association between worker and organizational factors on severe injury.Methods
We used a repeated cross-sectional design to examine worker compensation claims between September 1, 2014 and September 30, 2018 from 25 LTC homes. Worker compensation claim data came from The Workers Compensation Board of Alberta. LTC facility data came from the Translating Research in Elder Care program. We used descriptive statistics to characterize the sample and multivariable logistic regression to estimate the association between staff, organizational, and resident characteristics and severe injury, measured as 31+ days of disability.Results
We examined 3337 compensation claims from 25 LTC facilities. Less than 10% of claims (5.1%, n = 170) resulted in severe injury and most claims did not result in any days of disability (70.9%, n = 2367). Most of the sample were women and over 40 years of age. Care aides were the largest occupational group (62.1%, n = 2072). The highest proportion of claims were made from staff working in voluntary not for profit facilities (41.9%, n = 1398) followed by public not for profit (32.9%, n = 1098), and private for profit (n = 25.2%, n = 841). Most claims identified the nature of injury as traumatic injuries to muscles, tendons, ligaments, or joints. In the multivariable logistic regression, higher staff age (50–59, aOR: 2.26, 95% CI 1.06–4.83; 60+, aOR: 2.70, 95% CI 1.20–6.08) was associated with more severe injury, controlling for resident acuity and other organizational staffing factors.Conclusions
Most claims were made by care aides and were due to musculoskeletal injuries. In LTC, few worker compensation claims were due to severe injury. More research is needed to delve into the specific features of the LTC setting that are related to worker injury.
The COVID-19 pandemic overwhelmed the health systems and socio-economic foundations of many countries, Nigeria inclusive. The study was carried out to assess, understand, document and report the activities/measures that are considered nationally and sub-nationally significant, both in terms of COVID-19 responses and in terms of strengthening the health system for the future, in response to future threats since this will not be the last pandemic This paper examines how partnerships contributed to the health system and other sectors’ responses to COVID − 19 infection in Nigeria.Methods
This was a qualitative study. Data was collected using a scoping literature review and key informant interviews with 36 key stakeholders in the COVID-19 response in Nigeria, in Abuja (national level) Lagos and Enugu states (sub-national level). Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. The qualitative data was analysed using thematic analysis.Results
It was found that many partnerships were formed when responding to the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria. The health system leaned towards a horizontal dimension of partnership with non-health governmental sectors, non-governmental sectors, and other countries. All the components of the health system building blocks had a measure of partnership contributing to its accomplishments The partnerships came in varied forms, ranging from advocacy, funding, provision of palliatives to the citizens because of lockdowns, technical assistance, support to research, development of guidelines and health educational materials.Conclusion
The health sector’s collaboration with other sectors strengthened all the building blocks of the health system and was invaluable in enhancing the response to COVID-19, which needed a whole of government and a multi-sectoral approach. Formal frameworks for quickly initiating whole-of-government and multi-sectoral partnerships should be developed, with clear roles and responsibilities. This should be deployed for health system resilience and for response to shocks such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Structural capacity and continuum of snakebite care in the primary health care system in India: a cross-sectional assessment.
WHO recommends attending minimum four ANC consultations during pregnancy to ensure early detection of complications. The objective of this study was to quantify ANC attendance and factors associated with it.Methods
Participants were randomly selected using the WHO Cluster survey methodology in Southern and Central Somalia. A paper-print questionnaire was used to collect all data. Outcomes of interest were: access to at least one ANC consultation, completion of at least four ANC consultations, initiation of breastfeeding and place of delivery, while exposures included factors related to the latest pregnancy and demographic characteristics. Associations were assessed through logistic regression.Results
Seven hundred ninety-two women answered the questionnaire; 85% attended at least one and 23% at least four ANC consultations, 95% started breastfeeding and 51% had an institutional delivery. Encouragement to attend ANC increased the odds of attending at least one consultation (aOR = 8.22, 95%CI 4.36–15.49), while negative attitude of husband or family decreased the odds (aOR = 0.33, 95%CI 0.16–0.69). Knowing there is a midwife increased the odds of at least four visits (aOR = 1.87, 95%CI 1.03–3.41). Attending at least four consultations increased the odds of delivering in a health structure (aOR = 1.50, 95%CI 1.01–2.24), and attending at least one consultation was associated with higher odds of initiating breastfeeding (aOR = 2.69, 95%CI 1.07–6.74).Conclusions
Family has a strong influence in women’s ANC attendance, which increases the likelihood of institutional delivery and initiating breastfeeding. Women and families need to have access to information about benefits and availability of services; potential solutions can include health education and outreach interventions.
Structural capacity and continuum of snakebite care in the primary health care system in India: a cross-sectional assessment
In 2019, the World Health Organization, set a target to halve the burden of snakebite, by 2030, and identified ‘health systems strengthening’ as a key pillar of action. In India, the country with most snakebite deaths, the Union Government identified (in September 2022) training of health workers as a priority action area. In this policy context, we provide empirical evidence by analysing the most recent nationwide survey data (District Level Household and Facility Survey − 4), to assess structural capacity and continuum of snakebite care in primary health care system in India.Methodology
We evaluated structural capacity for snakebite care under six domains: medicines, equipment, infrastructure, human resources, governance and finance, and health management information systems (HMIS). We categorised states (aspirant, performer, front-runner, achiever) based on the proportion of primary health centres (PHC) and community health centres (CHC), attaining highest possible domain score. We assessed continuum of snakebite care, district-wise, under five domains (connectivity to PHC, structural capacity of PHC, referral from PHC to higher facility, structural capacity of CHC, referral from CHC to higher facility) as adequate or not.Results
No state excelled ( front-runner or achiever) in all six domains of structural capacity in PHCs or CHCs. The broader domains (physical infrastructure, human resources for health, HMIS) were weaker compared to snakebite care medicines in most states/UTs, at both PHC and CHC levels. CHCs faced greater concerns regarding human resources and equipment availability than PHCs in many states. Among PHCs, physical infrastructure and HMIS were aspirational in all 29 assessed states, while medicines, equipment, human resources, and governance and finance were aspirational in 8 (27.6%), 2 (6.9%), 17 (58.6%), and 12 (41.4%) states respectively. For CHCs, physical infrastructure was aspirational in all 30 assessed states/UTs, whereas HMIS, medicines, equipment, human resources, and governance and finance were aspirational in 29 (96.7%), 11 (36.7%), 27 (90%), 26 (86.7%), and 3 (10%) states respectively. No district had adequate continuum of snakebite care in all domains. Except for transport availability from CHC to higher facilities (48% of districts adequate) and transport availability from PHC to higher facilities (11% of districts adequate), fewer than 2% of districts were adequate in all other domains.Conclusion
Comprehensive strengthening of primary health care, across all domains, and throughout the continuum of care, instead of a piece-meal approach towards health systems strengthening, is necessitated to reduce snakebite burden in India, and possibly other high-burden nations with weak health systems. Health facility surveys are necessitated for this purpose.
Preferences of healthcare workers for provider payment systems in The Gambia’s National Health Insurance Scheme
The Government of The Gambia introduced a national health insurance scheme (NHIS) in 2021 to promote universal health coverage (UHC). Provider payment systems (PPS) are strategic purchasing arrangements that can enhance provider performance, accountability, and efficiency in the NHIS. This study assessed healthcare workers’ (HCWs’) preferences for PPS across major service areas in the NHIS.Methods
A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted using a probability proportionate to size sampling technique to select an appropriate sample size. Health care workers were presented with options for PPS to choose from across major service areas. Descriptive statistics explored HCW socio-demographic and health service characteristics. Multinomial logistic regressions were used to assess the association between these characteristics and choices of PPS.Results
The majority of HCW did not have insurance coverage, but more than 60% of them were willing to join and pay for the NHIS. Gender, professional cadre, facility level, and region influenced HCW’s preference for PPS across the major service areas. The preferred PPS varied among HCW depending on the service area, with capitation being the least preferred PPS across all service areas.Conclusion
The National Health Insurance Authority (NHIA) needs to consider HCW’s preference for PPS and factors that influence their preferences when choosing various payment systems. Strategic purchasing decisions should consider the incentives these payment systems may create to align incentives to guide provider behaviour towards UHC. The findings of this study can inform policy and decision-makers on the right mix of PPS to spur provider performance and value for money in The Gambia’s NHIS.
Programa de entrenamiento basado en TeamSTEPPS® mediante simulación clínica en profesionales de cuidados intensivos: un estudio con metodología mixta
An interprofessional education initiative: Introducing a local anesthesia dental course for nurse practitioner and physician assistant students.
Optimizing the roles of health workers to improve access to health services in Africa: an implementation framework for task shifting and sharing for policy and practice
Globally, countries are taking actions to ensure that their population have improved access to people-centred and integrated health services. Attaining this requires improved access to health workers at all levels of health service delivery and equitably distributed by geographical location. Due to the persistent health worker shortages, countries have resorted to implementing task shifting and task sharing in various settings to optimally utilize existing health workers to improve access to health services. There are deliberations on the need for an implementation framework to guide the adoption and operationalization of task shifting and task sharing as a key strategy for optimally utilizing the existing health workforce towards the achievement of UHC. The objective of this study was to develop an implementation framework for task shifting and task sharing for policy and practice in Africa.Methods
A sequential multimethod research design supported by scoping reviews, and qualitative descriptive study was employed in this study. The evidence generated was synthesized into an implementation framework that was evaluated for applicability in Africa by 36 subject matter experts.Results
The implementation framework for task shifting and task sharing has three core components – context, implementation strategies and intended change. The implementation strategies comprise of iterative actions in the development, translation, and sustainment phases that to achieve an intended change. The implementation strategies in the framework include mapping and engagement of stakeholders, generating evidence, development, implementation and review of a road map (or action plan) and national and/or sub-national policies and strategies, education of health workers using manuals, job aids, curriculum and clinical guidelines, and monitoring, evaluation, reviews and learning.Conclusion
The implementation framework for task shifting and task sharing in Africa serves as a guide on actions needed to achieve national, regional and global goals based on contextual evidence. The framework illustrates the rationale and the role of a combination of factors (enablers and barriers) in influencing the implementation of task shifting and task sharing in Africa.