A multimodal interprofessional education program including case-based problem solving focused on pain management increases student's knowledge and interprofessional skills.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mié, 02/11/2022 - 05:03
Interprofessional education (IPE) activities are recommended to reflect current and future practice. The opioid epidemic is one of the most significant current health challenges; recently declared a United States public health crisis. Thus, an IPE program centered on interprofessional roles in pain management during the opioid crisis was developed at the Eugene Applebaum College of Pharmacy and Health Sciences. Professional students from pharmacy, physical therapy, occupational therapy, physician assistant, and nurse anesthesia programs were included. The program included a lecture about each profession, small group case-based problem-solving sessions (group activity), and a panel discussion led by representative pain management experts from each profession. We conducted a retrospective review of data from 251 professional students attending the IPE program, and assessed students' knowledge of each profession and their respective roles in pain management. We evaluated interprofessional skills using the Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey and gathered qualitative student feedback. Participants gained knowledge about other professions. Each represented profession had improvements in five constructs related to interprofessional skills. Students found the most value from the group activity, which encouraged interaction among professions. Overall, the program design was effective in enhancing student knowledge and attitudes regarding collaborative interprofessional team skills.

Interprofessional education in the clinical learning environment: a mixed-methods evaluation of a longitudinal experience in the primary care setting.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mié, 02/11/2022 - 05:03
Team collaboration in our healthcare workforce is necessary to effectively address multifaceted medical and social needs, especially for those impacted by systemic inequities. Effective interprofessional practice and education models including curricula are needed to prepare a practice ready healthcare workforce for team collaboration. Most healthcare trainee interprofessional experiences take place episodically in classroom settings. However, creating a culture that supports team-based learning and interprofessional clinical practice requires teaching skills (e.g., communication, collaboration, shared decision-making, coordination of care) longitudinally in the clinical setting. A weekly interprofessional clinic for patients/clients with chronic health conditions was organized in three primary care practices. Trainees from nutrition, social work, medicine, and physician assistant programs worked with supervising clinicians from each field. Surveys, interviews, and focus groups assessed the effects of interprofessional education and training in the primary care setting. Results show the longitudinal experiential IPE program significantly improved knowledge, attitudes, skills, and values addressing key interprofessional competencies. Qualitative results complement survey data and highlight key themes addressing patient-centered care and team dynamics. These findings demonstrate the importance of longitudinal, immersive team-based interprofessional training in the clinical learning environment.

A systematic review of the use of simulation and reflection as summative assessment tools to evaluate student outcomes following interprofessional education activities.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mié, 02/11/2022 - 05:03
Despite the increasing emphasis on interprofessional education (IPE) in curricula and the potential benefits for student learning, there appears to be a lack of evidence directing authentic and accurate assessment of student-learning outcomes and translation of assessment data into scores and grades. Given the increasing importance of reflection and simulation in IPE, the purpose of this systematic review was to identify, appraise, and synthesize published literature using reflection and simulation as summative assessment tools to evaluate student outcomes following IPE activities. The Crowe Critical Appraisal Tool was used to appraise the included articles for quality. This systematic review yielded only five studies of marginal quality that could highlight the limited rigorous use of either reflection or simulation for summative assessment purposes. This review has identified a need for summative IPE assessment alongside formative assessments. Furthermore, training needs to be offered to both faculty assessors, to ensure they are competent and results are reproducible, and students, to equip them with the knowledge, critical thinking skills, and attitude for becoming reflective practitioners who are able to practice interprofessionally. The assessment of IPE remains a challenge, and there is a clear gap in the literature where research needs to grow.

A national survey to map IPE in Ireland.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mié, 02/11/2022 - 05:03
Interprofessional education (IPE) in Ireland is at an early stage. Currently, there is no data to reflect the amount and type of IPE occurring across the Island of Ireland. To support IPE implementation, data is needed on existing IPE which will identify gaps and foundations on which to build. We designed a cross-sectional, online, anonymous survey to map geographical IPE locations, IPE setting, and type of IPE offered. Results were analyzed by exporting raw data to Microsoft Excel. The survey was completed by 21 participants. Over half of participants (n = 12) came from two professions: physiotherapy and speech and language therapy. Participants were from 4 counties (from a potential 32): Cork, Dublin, Galway, and Limerick. There were twice as many university educator participants (n = 14) as compared to clinical educators (n = 7). Shared modules and guest lectures from other professions were frequent methods of shared learning. At university level the most frequent IPE activity was interprofessional problem-based learning/case study. At clinical sites students interact with a range of qualified professionals and have limited opportunities to work with students from other professions. This may impact the range of collaborative work skills developed and thus readiness for workforce entry.

Attitudes of Filipino health profession students toward interprofessional education: a descriptive study.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Mié, 02/11/2022 - 05:03
The thrust of interprofessional education is to prepare health professions students to deliberately learn and work together with a common goal of providing better and safer care for service users. This study sought to describe the attitudes of health profession students toward interprofessional education and to identify which among the variables (i.e., sex, programme, year level, prior clinical and interprofessional education experiences, and level of moral development) are determinants of their attitudes toward interprofessional education. A total of 485 participants were surveyed using a validated, three-part Interprofessional Education-Attitude Scale (IPE-AS). No statistically significant difference was found between the attitudes toward interprofessional education and variables such as sex, prior clinical and interprofessional education experiences among medical, nursing, and pharmacy students. Our findings found that those with more agreeable attitudes toward interprofessional education were students in the medical programme, those from the lower year levels and those with higher stages of morality (based on Kohlberg's stages of moral development). This suggests that IPE must be introduced across health science curricula with an intentional profiling of students about their experiences related to learning and working with students from different programmes. Moral development, as a variable in the study, also provides information as to how it can improve IPE programmes, competencies, and experiences of students in the fields of health sciences.

The experiences and challenges of community health volunteers as agents for behaviour change programming in Africa: a scoping review.

Community health volunteers are considered a vital part of the community health structure in Africa. Despite this vital role in African health systems, very little is known about the community health volunteers' day-to-day lived experiences providing services in communities and supporting other health workers. This scoping review aims to advance understanding of the day-to-day experiences of community health volunteers in Africa. In doing so, this review draws attention to these under-considered actors in African health systems and identifies critical factors and conditions that represent challenges to community health volunteers' work in this context. Ultimately, our goal is to provide a synthesis of key challenges and considerations that can inform efforts to reduce attrition and improve the sustainability of community health volunteers in Africa. This scoping review was conducted using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses extension for scoping reviews checklist to achieve the objectives. A comprehensive search of six databases returned 2140 sources. After screening, 31 peer-reviewed studies were selected for final review. Analytical themes were generated based on the reviewers' extraction of article data into descriptive themes using an inductive approach. In reviewing community health volunteers' accounts of providing health services, five key challenges become apparent. These are: (1) challenges balancing work responsibilities with family obligations; (2) resource limitations; (3) exposure to stigma and harassment; (4) gendered benefits and risks; and (5) health-system level challenges. This scoping review highlights the extent of challenges community health volunteers must navigate to provide services in communities. Sustained commitment at the national and international level to understand the lived experiences of community health volunteers and mitigate common stressors these health actors face could improve their performance and inform future programs.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Prevalence and pattern of migration intention of doctors undergoing training programmes in public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

BACKGROUND: Emigration of Nigerian doctors, including those undergoing training, to the developed countries in Europe and Americas has reached an alarming rate. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence, pattern, and determinants of migration intention among doctors undergoing residency and internship training programmes in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti state, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collected from 182 doctors undergoing residency and internship training at the two tertiary hospitals. An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on migration intention among the eligible respondents. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate data analyses were done. The level of significance was determined at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Majority (53.9%) of doctors undergoing training were between 30-39 years, and the mean age was 33.2 ± 5.7 years, male respondents were 68.1%, and 53.8% of the respondents were married. The proportion of doctors undergoing training who had the intention to migrate abroad to practice was 74.2%. A higher proportion of the internship trainees, 79.5%, intended to migrate abroad to practice while the proportion among the resident doctors, was 70.6%. Among the respondents who intended to migrate abroad to practice, 85(63%) intend to migrate abroad within the next 2 years, while the preferred countries of destination were the United Kingdom 65(48.2%), Canada 29 (21.5%), Australia 20 (14.8%) and the United States 18(13.3%). Seventy percent of respondents who intend to migrate abroad had started working on implementation of their intention to migrate abroad. The majority of the junior resident doctors, 56(72.7%), intend to migrate abroad compared with the senior resident doctors, 21(27.3%), (χ2 = 14.039; p < 0.001). The determinants of migration intention are the stage of residency training and level of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of migration intention among the doctors undergoing training in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, with the majority already working on their plans to migrate abroad. Doctors undergoing training who are satisfied with their job and those who are in the senior stage of residency training programme are less inclined to migrate abroad. RECOMMENDATIONS: The hospital management in the tertiary hospitals should develop retention strategies for human resources for health, especially doctors undergoing training in their establishment, to avert the possible problems of dearth of specialists in the tertiary health facilities. Also, necessary support should be provided for the residency training programme in the tertiary health institutions to make transition from junior to senior residency stage less strenuous.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Prevalence and pattern of migration intention of doctors undergoing training programmes in public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Abstract Background

Emigration of Nigerian doctors, including those undergoing training, to the developed countries in Europe and Americas has reached an alarming rate.

Objective

This study aimed at assessing the prevalence, pattern, and determinants of migration intention among doctors undergoing residency and internship training programmes in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti state, Nigeria.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collected from 182 doctors undergoing residency and internship training at the two tertiary hospitals. An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on migration intention among the eligible respondents. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate data analyses were done. The level of significance was determined at p-value < 0.05.

Results

Majority (53.9%) of doctors undergoing training were between 30–39 years, and the mean age was 33.2 ± 5.7 years, male respondents were 68.1%, and 53.8% of the respondents were married. The proportion of doctors undergoing training who had the intention to migrate abroad to practice was 74.2%. A higher proportion of the internship trainees, 79.5%, intended to migrate abroad to practice while the proportion among the resident doctors, was 70.6%. Among the respondents who intended to migrate abroad to practice, 85(63%) intend to migrate abroad within the next 2 years, while the preferred countries of destination were the United Kingdom 65(48.2%), Canada 29 (21.5%), Australia 20 (14.8%) and the United States 18(13.3%). Seventy percent of respondents who intend to migrate abroad had started working on implementation of their intention to migrate abroad. The majority of the junior resident doctors, 56(72.7%), intend to migrate abroad compared with the senior resident doctors, 21(27.3%), (χ2 = 14.039; p < 0.001). The determinants of migration intention are the stage of residency training and level of job satisfaction.

Conclusion

There is a high prevalence of migration intention among the doctors undergoing training in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, with the majority already working on their plans to migrate abroad. Doctors undergoing training who are satisfied with their job and those who are in the senior stage of residency training programme are less inclined to migrate abroad.

Recommendations

The hospital management in the tertiary hospitals should develop retention strategies for human resources for health, especially doctors undergoing training in their establishment, to avert the possible problems of dearth of specialists in the tertiary health facilities. Also, necessary support should be provided for the residency training programme in the tertiary health institutions to make transition from junior to senior residency stage less strenuous.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Análisis psicométrico y validez de la Escala de Disposición al Aprendizaje Interprofesional en estudiantes de enfermería en Chile

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 24/10/2022 - 05:53
Introducción: La educación interprofesional ofrece a los estudiantes de salud una oportunidad para aprender, practicar y mejorar las habilidades de comunicación y colaboración a través de la experiencia de aprendizaje con otras profesiones. Es importante determinar la disposición que tienen de involucrarse activamente con otros estudiantes en su proceso de aprendizaje, lo que se evalúa a través de la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional, una de las más usadas internacionalmente. El objetivo fue adaptar y validar al español la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional (RIPLS) en estudiantes de enfermería.Método: Diseño de estudio cuantitativo transversal, a una muestra de 330 estudiantes de enfermería de diferentes años, se realizó Alfa de Cronbach y análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio.Resultados: La escala original tenía 23 ítems, solo 16 cumplen con los criterios de validez y confiabilidad. Los 16 ítems, se distribuyen en las dimensiones: Colaboración y trabajo en equipo (CyTE: 10 ítems), Trabajo centrado en el paciente (PC: 4 ítems) y Sentido e Identidad Profesional (PI: 2 ítems). El índice alfa de Cronbach de la escala completa fue de 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61).Conclusión: La escala RIPL validada en este estudio tiene confiabilidad y validez adecuada para las dimensiones Trabajo en equipo y colaboración y Trabajo centrado en el paciente. Se requiere elaborar nuevos ítems para Sentido e Identidad profesional. (AU) Introduction: Interprofessional education offers health students an opportunity to learn, practice, and improve communication and collaboration skills through learning experiences with other professions. It is important to determine their willingness to actively engage with other students in their learning process, which is assessed through the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning scale, one of the most widely used internationally. The objective was to adapt and validate the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale to Spanish among nursing students. Method: The study design was cross-sectional quantitative, with a sample of 330 nursing students of different years. Cronbach's Alpha and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: The original scale had 23 items, only 16 met the validity and reliability criteria. The 16 items are distributed in the dimensions: Teamwork and collaboration (T: 10 items), Patient Centered Work(EP: 4 items) and Professional identity (PI: 2 items). Cronbach's alpha index for the full scale was 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61). Conclusion: the RIPL scale validated in this study has adequate reliability and validity for the dimensions Teamwork and collaboration and Patient Centered Work. Elaboration of new items are required for Professional Identity. (AU)

Educação Interprofissional no Brasil: formação e pesquisa

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 24/10/2022 - 05:53
Esta coletânea é uma obra de muitas mãos e muitas referências! Seus 22 capítulos, foram organizados em 3 partes, a saber: Aproximações Conceituais; Educação Interprofissional em Saúde como estratégia de formação e prática; e Avaliação em Educação Interprofissional em saúde. Com a obra, busca-se retratar parte das experiências e das pesquisas produzidas no Instituto Saúde e Sociedade do Campus Baixada Santista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp/BS), no Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Educação Interprofissional em Saúde (GPEIS), nos Programas de Pós-Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências da Saúde (níveis Mestrado e Doutorado) e no de Ensino em Ciências da Saúde (nível Mestrado Profissional). Através da obra expressamos o compromisso com a qualidade da formação profissional e com o sistema de saúde público e universal, assim como esperamos estar colaborando com o avanço do conhecimento sobre a formação interprofissional no país.

Disparities in Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Rights Among Adolescents and Young People During COVID-19 Pandemic: Culture, Economic, and Gender Perspectives

Abstract Purpose of Review

As the world grapples with the health systems’ challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressing the needs of the already vulnerable adolescents and young people is vital. This narrative synthesis is aimed to highlight the current gender, cultural, and socioeconomic dynamics fueling inequalities to accessing sexual, reproductive health and rights (SRHR) services among adolescents and young people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Recent Findings

The COVID-19 pandemic has in most countries exacerbated already existing inequalities due to economic, gender, cultural, and legal aspects. Strategies implemented by most governments to mitigate the spread of the virus have also had a negative impact on the access to SRHR services, some of which are long term. Few published studies have assessed the extent to which the pandemic has fueled each of these paradigms regarding access to SRHR, especially among adolescents and young people (AYP). Additionally, there is paucity in data on the same in most countries, as the systems to track such effects were not available at the inception of the pandemic.

Summary

Despite efforts to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on this population, deficits remain and a multi-stakeholder approach is needed to achieve the intended goals, especially where cultural and gender values are deeply rooted. Further research is needed to quantify how the pandemic has fueled economic, gender, and cultural aspects to influence access to SRHR services among AYP especially in LMIC.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Human resource needs and costs for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis provision in nurse-led primary care in Eswatini and opportunities for task sharing

Abstract Background

The global expansion of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) includes health systems that face a shortage of skilled health care workers (HCWs). We estimated the human resource needs and costs for providing PrEP in nurse-led primary care clinics in Eswatini. Furthermore, we assessed potential cost savings from task sharing between nurses and other HCW cadres.

Methods

We conducted a time-and-motion and costing study in a PrEP demonstration project between August 2017 and January 2019. A form for recording time and performed activities (“motion”) was filled by HCWs of six primary care clinics. To estimate the human resource needs for specific PrEP activities, we allocated recorded times to performed PrEP activities using linear regression with and without adjusting for a workflow interruption, that is, if a client was seen by different HCWs or by the same HCW at different times. We assessed a base case in which a nurse provides all PrEP activities and five task shifting scenarios, of which four include workflow interruptions due to task sharing between different HCW cadres.

Results

On average, PrEP initiation required 29 min (95% CI 25–32) of HCW time and PrEP follow-up 16 min (95% CI 14–18). The HCW time cost $4.55 (uncertainty interval [UI] 1.52–9.69) for PrEP initiation and $2.54 (UI 1.07–4.64) for PrEP follow-up when all activities were performed by a nurse. Time costs were $2.30–4.25 (UI 0.62–9.19) for PrEP initiation and $1.06–2.60 (UI 0.30–5.44) for PrEP follow-up when nurses shared tasks with HCWs from lower cadres. Interruptions of the workflow added, on average, 3.4 min (95% CI 0.69–6.0) to the time HCWs needed for a given number of PrEP activities. The cost of an interrupted workflow was estimated at $0.048–0.87 (UI 0.0098–1.63) depending on whose time need increased.

Conclusions

A global shortage of skilled HCWs could slow the expansion of PrEP. Task shifting to lower-cadre HCW in nurse-led PrEP provision can free up nurse time and reduce the cost of PrEP provision even if interruptions associated with task sharing increase the overall human resource need.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Scaling severe acute malnutrition treatment with community health workers: a geospatial coverage analysis in rural Mali

Abstract Background

In 2015, the Ministry of Health in Mali included the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) into the package of activities of the integrated Community Case Management (iCCM). This paper aims to analyze the impact of including community health workers (CHWs) as treatment providers outside the Health Facilities (HFs) on the coverage of SAM treatment when scaling up the intervention in the three largest districts of the Kayes Region in Mali.

Methods

A baseline coverage assessment was conducted in August 2017 in the three districts before the CHWs started treating SAM. The end-line assessment was conducted one year later, in August 2018. Coverage was assessed by the standardized methodology called Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC). The primary outcome was treatment coverage and other variables evaluated were the geographical distribution of the HFs, CHW’s sites and overlapping between both health providers, the estimation of children with geographical access to health care and the estimation of children screened for acute malnutrition in their communities.

Results

Treatment coverage increased in Kayes (28.7–57.1%) and Bafoulabé (20.4–61.1%) but did not in Kita (28.4–28.5%). The decentralization of treatment has not had the same impact on coverage in all districts, with significant differences. The geospatial analyses showed that Kita had a high proportion of overlap between HFs and/or CHWs 48.7% (39.2–58.2), a high proportion of children without geographical access to health care 70.4% (70.1–70.6), and a high proportion of children not screened for SAM in their communities 52.2% (51.9–52.5).

Conclusions

Working with CHWs in SAM increases treatment coverage, but other critical aspects need to be considered by policymakers if this intervention model is intended to be scaled up at the country level. To improve families’ access to nutritional health care, before establishing decentralized treatment in a whole region it must be considered the geographical location of CHWs. This previous assessment will avoid overlap among health providers and ensure the coverage of all unserved areas according to their population densities need.

Trial registration: ISRCTN registry with ID 1990746. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN14990746

Categorías: Investigaciones

Fiscal autonomy of subnational governments and equity in healthcare resource allocation: Evidence from China.

Objectives: Promoting equity in healthcare resource allocation (EHRA) has become a critical political agenda of governments at all levels since the ambitious Universal Health Coverage was launched in China in 2009, while the role of an important institutional variable-fiscal autonomy of subnational governments-is often overlooked. The present study was designed to determine the effect of FASG on EHRA and its potential mechanism of action and heterogeneity characteristics to provide empirical support for the research field expansion and relative policies making of EHRA. Methods: From the start, we utilized the Theil index and the entropy method to calculate the EHRA index of 22 provinces (2011-2020) based on the medical resource data of 287 prefecture-level cities. Furthermore, we used the two-way fixed effects model (FE) to identify and analyze the impact of FASG on EHRA and then used three robustness test strategies and two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression to verify the reliability of the conclusions and deal with potential endogeneity problems, respectively. At last, we extend the baseline regression model and obtain the two-way FE threshold model for conducting heterogeneity analysis, which makes us verify whether the baseline model has nonlinear characteristics. Results: The static value and the trend of interannual changes in the EHRA values in different provinces are both very different. The regression results of the two-way FE model show that FASG has a significant positive impact on EHRA, and the corresponding estimated coefficient is - 0.0849 (P < 0.01). Moreover, this promotion effect can be reflected through two channels: enhancing the intensity of government health expenditure (IGHE) and optimizing the allocation of human resources for health (AHRH). At last, under the different economic and demographic constraints, the impact of FASG on EHRA has nonlinear characteristics, i.e., after crossing a specific threshold of per capita DGP (PGDP) and population density (PD), the promotion effect is reduced until it is not statistically significant, while after crossing a particular threshold of dependency ratio (DR), the promotion effect is further strengthened and still statistically significant. Conclusions: FASG plays an essential role in promoting EHRA, which shows that subnational governments need to attach great importance to the construction of fiscal capability in the allocation of health care resources, effectively improve the equity of medical and health fiscal expenditures, and promote the sustainable improvement of the level of EHRA.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Análisis psicométrico y validez de la Escala de Disposición al Aprendizaje Interprofesional en estudiantes de enfermería en Chile

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 17/10/2022 - 05:47
Introducción: La educación interprofesional ofrece a los estudiantes de salud una oportunidad para aprender, practicar y mejorar las habilidades de comunicación y colaboración a través de la experiencia de aprendizaje con otras profesiones. Es importante determinar la disposición que tienen de involucrarse activamente con otros estudiantes en su proceso de aprendizaje, lo que se evalúa a través de la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional, una de las más usadas internacionalmente. El objetivo fue adaptar y validar al español la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional (RIPLS) en estudiantes de enfermería.Método: Diseño de estudio cuantitativo transversal, a una muestra de 330 estudiantes de enfermería de diferentes años, se realizó Alfa de Cronbach y análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio.Resultados: La escala original tenía 23 ítems, solo 16 cumplen con los criterios de validez y confiabilidad. Los 16 ítems, se distribuyen en las dimensiones: Colaboración y trabajo en equipo (CyTE: 10 ítems), Trabajo centrado en el paciente (PC: 4 ítems) y Sentido e Identidad Profesional (PI: 2 ítems). El índice alfa de Cronbach de la escala completa fue de 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61).Conclusión: La escala RIPL validada en este estudio tiene confiabilidad y validez adecuada para las dimensiones Trabajo en equipo y colaboración y Trabajo centrado en el paciente. Se requiere elaborar nuevos ítems para Sentido e Identidad profesional. (AU) Introduction: Interprofessional education offers health students an opportunity to learn, practice, and improve communication and collaboration skills through learning experiences with other professions. It is important to determine their willingness to actively engage with other students in their learning process, which is assessed through the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning scale, one of the most widely used internationally. The objective was to adapt and validate the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale to Spanish among nursing students. Method: The study design was cross-sectional quantitative, with a sample of 330 nursing students of different years. Cronbach's Alpha and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: The original scale had 23 items, only 16 met the validity and reliability criteria. The 16 items are distributed in the dimensions: Teamwork and collaboration (T: 10 items), Patient Centered Work(EP: 4 items) and Professional identity (PI: 2 items). Cronbach's alpha index for the full scale was 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61). Conclusion: the RIPL scale validated in this study has adequate reliability and validity for the dimensions Teamwork and collaboration and Patient Centered Work. Elaboration of new items are required for Professional Identity. (AU)

Building a theoretical model for virtual interprofessional education.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 17/10/2022 - 05:47
BACKGROUND: Virtual interprofessional education (IPE) has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional in-person IPE. However, theoretical frameworks to support virtual interprofessional learning are not well established. Two theoretical frameworks emerged as relevant to virtual IPE: (1) the Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (CIHC) interprofessional learning framework and (2) Dornan's Experience-Based Learning Model (ExBL) of workplace learning. In this study, we sought to explore virtual IPE using both frameworks to develop new theoretical understandings and identify assumptions, gaps and barriers. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical and nursing student participants (n = 14) and facilitators (n = 3) from virtual IPE workshops. Transcripts were analysed using directed content analysis methodology, informed by the CIHC and ExBL frameworks. Themes were explored using mind-mapping transitional coding. Data collection and analysis were continued iteratively until themes with adequate conceptual depth, relevance and plausibility were identified. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: (1) a shift in the balance of personal and professional, (2) blunted sociologic fidelity and (3) uncertainty and threats to interpersonal connections. Professional distinctions and hierarchies are blurred virtually. This contributed to an increased sense of psychological safety among most learners and lowered the threshold for participation. Separation from workplace sociologic complexity facilitated communication and role clarification objectives. However, loss of immersion may limit deeper engagement. Interprofessional objectives that rely on deeper sociological fidelity, such as conflict resolution, may be threatened. Informal interactions between learners are hindered, which may threaten organic development of interprofessional relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Role clarification and communication objectives are preserved in virtual IPE. Educators should pay close attention to psychological safety and sociologic fidelity-both to leverage advantages and guard against threats to connection and transferability. Virtual IPE may be well suited as a primer to in-person activities or as scaffolding towards interprofessional workplace practice.

Improved Self-Assessed Collaboration Through Interprofessional Education: Midwifery Students and Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Learning Together.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 17/10/2022 - 05:47
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that interprofessional education, bringing learners together to learn about, with, and from each other, improves health professions education and can improve health outcomes. Little research has measured outcomes of interprofessional education between midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents. The purpose of this study was to examine self-assessed interprofessional and collaborative competencies among midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents. METHODS: Baseline self-assessed interprofessional and collaborative competencies were compared with follow-up measurements to evaluate learners' experiences over an 11-month study period. Participants were midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents who experienced interprofessional learning activities. The Interprofessional Education Collaborative Competency Self-Assessment Survey (IPEC Survey) and Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS) were used. RESULTS: Of 256 learners at 4 demonstration sites, 223 (87%) completed the baseline, and 121 of 237 eligible learners (51%) completed the follow-up surveys. The IPEC Survey total score (t = 2.31, P = .02) and interaction subscale (t = 2.85, P = .005) and ICCAS score (t = 4.04, P = .001) increased for midwifery students but not obstetrics and gynecology residents on the IPEC Survey (t = 0.32, P = .75) and ICCAS (t = -0.05, P = .96) measures. Midwifery students (87%) and residents (57%) reported improved overall ability to collaborate. Learners responding to 3 open-ended questions valued team-based experiences, including learning how to communicate with each other; appreciated learning each other's education and scope of practice; and recommended skills development including uncommon clinical events, case discussions, and direct clinical care. DISCUSSION: This study advanced knowledge about interprofessional education between midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents. Midwifery students improved in self-assessed interprofessional and collaborative competencies. Most learners reported better interprofessional collaboration skills and were positive about future interprofessional learning. This evaluation approach is available for other programs implementing or extending interprofessional education.

Informing investment in health workforce in Bangladesh: a health labour market analysis.

BACKGROUND: As the 2016 Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 (GSHRH) outlines, health systems can only function with health workforce (HWF). Bangladesh is committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) hence a comprehensive understanding of the existing HWF was deemed necessary informing policy and funding decisions to the health system. METHODS: The health labour market analysis (HLMA) framework for UHC cited in the GSHRH was adopted to analyse the supply, need and demand of all health workers in Bangladesh. Government's information systems provided data to document the public sector HWF. A national-level assessment (2019) based on a country representative sample of 133 geographical units, served to estimate the composition and distribution of the private sector HWF. Descriptive statistics served to characterize the formal and informal HWF. RESULTS: The density of doctors, nurses and midwives in Bangladesh was only 9.9 per 10 000 population, well below the indicative sustainable development goals index threshold of 44.5 outlined in the GSHRH. Considering all HWFs in Bangladesh, the estimated total density was 49 per 10 000 population. However, one-third of all HWFs did not hold recognized roles and their competencies were unknown, taking only qualified and recognized HWFs into account results in an estimated density 33.2. With an estimate 75 nurses per 100 doctors in Bangladesh, the second area, where policy attention appears to be warranted is on the competencies and skill-mix. Thirdly, an estimated 82% of all HWFs work in the private sector necessitates adequate oversight for patient safety. Finally, a high proportion of unfilled positions in the public sector, especially in rural areas where 67% of the population lives, account only 11% of doctors and nurses. CONCLUSION: Bangladesh is making progress on many of the milestones of the GSHRH, notably, the establishment of the HWF unit and reporting through the national health workforce accounts. However, particular investment on strengthening the intersectoral HWF coordination across sectors; regulation for assurance of patient safety and adequate oversight of the private sector; establishing accreditation mechanisms for training institutions; and halving inequalities in access to a qualified HWF are important towards advancing UHC in Bangladesh.
Categorías: Investigaciones

National IoMT platform strategy portfolio decision model under the COVID-19 environment: based on the financial and non-financial value view

Abstract

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is an emerging technology in the healthcare revolution which provides real-time healthcare information communication and reasonable medical resource allocation. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on people’s lives and has affected healthcare capacities. It is important for integrated IoMT platform development to overcome the global pandemic challenges. This study proposed the national IoMT platform strategy portfolio decision-making model from the non-financial (technology, organization, environment) and financial perspectives. As a solution to the decision problem, initially, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technology were employed to capture the cause-effect relationship based on the perspectives and criteria obtained from the insight of an expert team. The analytic network process (ANP) and pairwise comparisons were then used to determine the weights for the strategy. Simultaneously, this study incorporated IoMT platform resource limitations into the zero–one goal programming (ZOGP) method to obtain an optimal portfolio selection for IoMT platform strategy planning. The results showed that the integrated MCDM method produced reasonable results for selecting the most appropriate IoMT platform strategy portfolio when considering resource constraints such as system installation costs, consultant fees, infrastructure costs, reduction of medical staff demand, and improvement rates for diagnosis efficiency. The decision-making model of the IoMT platform in this study was conclusive and significantly compelling to aid government decision makers in concentrating their efforts on planning IoMT strategies in response to various pandemic and medical resource allocations.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Health services supervision in a protracted crisis: a qualitative study into supportive supervision practices in South Sudan

Abstract Background

The health system in South Sudan faces extreme domestic resource constraints, low capacity, and protracted humanitarian crises. Supportive supervision is believed to improve the quality of health care and service delivery by compensating for flaws in health workforce management. This study aimed to explore the current supervision practices in South Sudan and identify areas for quality improvement.

Methods

The study employed qualitative approaches to collect and analyse data from six purposefully selected counties. Data were collected from 194 participants using semi-structured interviews (43 health managers) and focus group discussions (151 health workers). Thematic content analysis was used to yield an in-depth understanding of the supervision practices in the health sector.

Results

The study found that integrated supportive supervision and monitoring visits were the main approaches used for health services supervision in South Sudan. Supportive supervision focused more on health system administration and less on clinical matters. Although fragmented, supportive supervision was carried out quarterly, while monitoring visits were either conducted monthly or ad hoc. Prioritization for supportive supervision was mainly data driven. Paper-based checklists were the most commonly used supervision tools. Many supervisors had no formal training on supportive supervision and only learned on the job. The health workers received on-site verbal feedback and, most times, on-the-job training sessions through coaching and mentorship. Action plans developed during supervision were inadequately followed up due to insufficient funding. Insecurity, poor road networks, lack of competent health managers, poor coordination, and lack of adequate means of transport were some of the challenges experienced during supervision. The presumed outcomes of supportive supervision were improvements in human resource management, drug management, health data reporting, teamwork, and staff respect for one another.

Conclusion

Supportive supervision remains a daunting task in the South Sudan health sector due to a combination of external and health system factors. Our study findings suggest that strengthening the processes and providing inputs for supervision should be prioritized if quality improvement is to be attained. This necessitates stronger stewardship from the Ministry of Health, integration of different supervision practices, investment in the capacity of the health workforce, and health infrastructure development.

Categorías: Investigaciones

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