Springer Search: "human resources for health"
Practices and resilience of dieticians during the COVID-19 pandemic: a national survey in the United Arab Emirates
The COVID-19 pandemic impacted the practices and resilience of most healthcare workers, including dieticians. In addition to offering critical care to COVID-19 patients, dieticians play a major role in preventing and managing conditions known to affect COVID-19, such as obesity and metabolic disorders. The objective of this study was to examine the conditions and changes in the work environment as well as resilience and its correlates among dieticians during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Arab Emirates (UAE).Methods
A cross-sectional national survey was conducted among dieticians practicing in the UAE (n = 371), using a web-based questionnaire. The questionnaire addressed, in addition to the sociodemographic information, the practice-related characteristics and resilience of participants. For the latter the Connor–Davidson Resilience Scale© was used. Descriptive statistics as well as simple and multiple linear regressions were used in the statistical analysis.Results
Of participants, 26.4% reported not having access to personal protective equipment and 50% indicated being concerned for their safety and health. Furthermore, considerable proportions of participants were not satisfied (45%) with the support nor with the appreciation (37.7%) they received during the pandemic. One in four dieticians considered quitting his/her job. While 65.8% of participants reported counseling COVID-19 patients, a third did not use any online platform for counseling. The most cited challenge to dietetic practice during the pandemic was ‘maintaining work-life balance’ (43.1%). The mean CD-RISC score was 72.0 ± 14.0. After adjustment, working in a hospital or public clinic (as opposed to private clinic), having a condition preventing face-to-face counseling, considering quitting job and feeling neutral or dissatisfied with the appreciation were associated with lower resilience scores, while counseling COVID-19 patients was associated with higher scores.Conclusions
Despite the fairly high resilience among dieticians practicing in the UAE during the COVID-19 pandemic, the findings of this study highlighted a few challenges, mainly related to safe practice environment, support for online counseling, and maintaining work-life balance. Concerted efforts of policy and decision makers ought to develop targeted programs for dieticians to ensure their retention and wellbeing during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Factors influencing the retention of secondary midwives at health centres in rural areas in Cambodia: the role of gender—a qualitative study
Retention of skilled midwives is crucial to reducing maternal mortality in rural areas; hence, Cambodia has been trying to retain at least one secondary midwife who can provide basic emergency obstetric care at every health centre even in rural areas. The factors influencing the retention of midwives, but not solely secondary midwives, have been identified; however, the security issues that affected female health workers during the conflict and the post-conflict years and gender issues have been unexplored. This study explores these and other potential factors influencing secondary midwife retention and their significance.Methods
Sequential two-stage qualitative interviews explored influential factors and their significance. The first stage comprised semi-structured interviews with 19 key informants concerned with secondary midwife retention and in-depth interviews with eight women who had deliveries at rural health centres. Based on these interview results, in-depth interviews with six secondary midwives who were deployed to a rural health centre were conducted in the second stage. These midwives ranked the factors using a participatory rural appraisal tool. These interviews were coded with the framework approach.Results
Living with one’s parents or husband, accommodation and security issues were identified as more significant influential factors for secondary midwife retention than current salary and the physical condition of the health centre. Gender norms were entrenched in these highly influential factors. The deployed secondary midwives who were living apart from one’s parents or spouse requested transfer (end of retention) to health centres closer to home, as other midwives had done. They feared gender-based violence, although violence against them and the women around them was not reported. The health workers surrounding the midwives endorsed the gender norms and the midwives’ responses. The ranking of factors showed similarities to the interview results.Conclusions
This study suggests that gender norms increased the significance of issues with deployments to rural areas and security issues as negative factors on female health workforce retention in rural areas in Cambodia. This finding implies that further incorporating gendered perspectives into research and developing and implementing gender-responsive policies are necessary to retain the female health workforce, thereby achieving SDGs 3 and 5.
Examining the Roles of Stakeholders and Evidence in Policymaking for Inclusive Urban Development in Nigeria: Findings from a Policy Analysis
This study examined the extent to which stakeholders are involved and evidence considered in urban development policies and strategies in Nigeria. With a high urban population growth rate in Nigerian cities, sustainable urban development is critical and should be hinged on viable policies that are evidence-based and consider stakeholders’ inputs and interests. A document review of policies, strategies, and plans that are relevant to urban development in Nigeria was conducted. A total of 25 documents were reviewed consisting of 11 policies, 7 plans and 6 strategies/programs/initiatives/road maps, and 1 legal act. A scoping literature review was also done to navigate assessment of the policy documents. Narrative synthesis of findings was conducted. Various stakeholders at the federal and state levels were listed in the policy and strategy documents as being involved in urban development in Nigeria, including government agencies, development partners, civil society organizations, and community groups. The lack of clarity in stakeholders’ roles in policy development was noted. Various forms of evidence were stated to have been used in policy development including examining policy antecedents, statistical data from diverse sources, country-wide experiences, and expert advice. Stakeholders’ roles in urban development in Nigeria vary across policies, and their involvement in the policy development process is not often explicit. There is a need for harmonized inclusion. Although various forms of evidence were alluded to in some Nigerian urban policies, the sources and manner of utility were somewhat unclear.
In a letter to the editor, Moussa (2021) questions the impact of review articles on the ranking and indicators of journals. Applied to the management and economics FT50 journals (Fassin Scientometr 126:5911–5943, 2021), the analysis reveals that this bias is rather limited. Except for a few journals identified by Moussa, the ranking of the journal’s h-indexes does not alter significantly.
Implementation of maternal and perinatal death surveillance and response system among health facilities in Morogoro Region: a descriptive cross-sectional study
When used effectively, the Maternal and Perinatal Death Surveillance and Response (MPDSR) system can bring into reality a revolutionary victory in the fight against maternal and perinatal mortality from avoidable causes. This study aimed at determining the status of implementation of the system among health facilities in the Morogoro Region.Method
This study was conducted among 38 health facilities from three districts of the Morogoro region, Tanzania, from April 27, 2020, to May 29, 2020. Quantitative data were collected through document review for MPDSR implementation status. The outcome was determined by using a unique scoring sheet with a total of 30 points. Facilities that scored less than 11 points were considered to be in the pre-implementation phase, those scored 11 to 17 were considered in the implementation phase, and those scored 18 to 30 were considered to be in the institutionalization phase.Results
The majority 20(53 %) of health facilities were in the pre-implementation phase, only 15(40 %) of assessed health facilities were in the implementation phase, and few 3(8 %) of health facilities were in institutionalization phase. There was a strong evidence that MPDSR implementation was more advanced in urban compared to rural health facilities (Fisher’s test = 6.158, p = 0.049), hospitals compared to health centers (Fisher’s test =14.609, p <0.001) and private and faith-based organization than public facilities (Fisher’s test, 15.897 = p = 0.002).Conclusions
The study revealed that health facilities in Morogoro Region have not adequately implemented the MPDSR system. The majority of health facilities in rural settings and owned by the government showed poor MPDSR implementation and hence called for immediate action to rectify the situation. Strengthen MPDSR implementation, health facilities should be encouraged to adhere to the available MPDSR guidelines in the process of death reviews. Transparent systems should also be established to ensure thorough tracking and follow-up of recommendations evolving from MPDSR reviews. Health facilities should also consider integrating MPDSR to other quality improvement teams to maximize its efficiency.
Engagement of non-governmental organisations in moving towards universal health coverage: a scoping review
Developing essential health services through non-governmental organisations (NGOs) is an important strategy for progressing towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC), especially in low- and middle-income countries. It is crucial to understand NGOs’ role in reaching UHC and the best way to engage them.Objective
This study reviewed the role of NGOs and their engagement strategies in progress toward UHC.Method
We systematically reviewed studies from five databases (PubMed, Web of Science (ISI), ProQuest, EMBASE and Scopus) that investigated NGOs interventions in public health-related activities. The quality of the selected studies was assessed using the mixed methods appraisal tool. PRISMA reporting guidelines were followed.Findings
Seventy-eight studies met the eligibility criteria. NGOs main activities related to service and population coverage and used different strategies to progress towards UHC. To ensure services coverage, NGOs provided adequate and competent human resources, necessary health equipment and facilities, and provided public health and health care services strategies. To achieve population coverage, they provided services to vulnerable groups through community participation. Most studies were conducted in middle-income countries. Overall, the quality of the reported evidence was good. The main funding sources of NGOs were self-financing and grants from the government, international organisations, and donors.Conclusion
NGOs can play a significant role in the country’s progress towards UHC along with the government and other key health players. The government should use strategies and interventions in supporting NGOs, accelerating their movement toward UHC.
Private sector retail pharmacies, or drug shops, play an important role in access to essential medicines and services in low-and-middle-income countries. Recognising that they have the potential to contribute to health system strengthening efforts, many recent initiatives to engage with drug shops have been launched. These include initiatives that focus on changes in policy, regulation and training. However, the specific factors that influence their success remain poorly understood. Seven country case studies supported under the Alliance’s programme of work ‘Strengthening health systems: the role of drug shops’ help to explore this issue.Methods
Country case studies from the above programme of research from Bangladesh, Indonesia, Myanmar, Nigeria, Tanzania and Zambia were used as the main sources of data for this paper. A modified version of Bigdeli et al.’s Access to Medicines framework was applied within a partially grounded approach to analyze each country case study and compare themes between countries.Results
Many factors may help initiatives targeting drug shops successfully achieve their intended outcomes. At the micro level, these include community demand for drug shops and a positive relationship between drug shops and their clients. At the meso level, facilitators of initiative success include training and positive attitudes from drug shops towards the initiative. Barriers include client pressure, procurement challenges and financial and administrative costs associated with initiatives. At the macro level, collaboration between stakeholders, high-level buy in and supervision, monitoring and regulation may influence initiative success. These factors are inter-dependent and interact with each other in a dynamic way.Conclusions
Using a framework approach, these country case studies demonstrate common factors that influence how drug shops can strengthen health systems. These learnings can help inform the design and implementation of successful strategies to engage drug shops towards sustainable systems change.
Achieving universal health coverage is subject to the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of health workers. Countries that host refugees and migrants, such as Turkey, must strengthen the capacity of their health systems to increase access to services, especially for refugees and migrants. The Turkish Ministry of Health adapted Syrian refugee healthcare workers in the healthcare services to boost Syrian refugees’ access to healthcare. This study aimed to assess job satisfaction and the factors influencing job satisfaction among refugee physicians and nurses working in Refugee Healthcentres (RHCs) in Turkey.Methods
A self-administered, cross-sectional survey targeted all Syrian physicians and nurses working in RHCs across Turkey. The short-form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire(MSQ) was used to assess job satisfaction. In total, 555 nurse/midwives and 336 physicians responded, yielding a total response rate of 56.5%. Descriptive analyses and linear regression tests were conducted to determine the level of job satisfaction and to analyze determinant factors.Results
Nurses/midwives reported the highest level of general job satisfaction, followed by specialist physicians and general physicians. Physicians who had worked as specialists in Syria but were now working as general physicians in Turkey had the lowest job satisfaction levels. Multiple regression analysis showed that professional status in Turkey, income, teamwork and team management were significantly associated with job satisfaction.Conclusions
To maintain a high level of job satisfaction in refugee healthcare workers, human resources management should consider matching job placements with training specialization and support good leadership and good teamwork. Remuneration that accounts for the cost of living and non-financial incentives could also play a significant role in job satisfaction.
Do health policies address the availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality of human resources for health? Analysis over three decades of National Health Policy of India
Human Resources for Health (HRH) are crucial for improving health services coverage and population health outcomes. The World Health Organisation (WHO) promotes countries to formulate holistic policies that focus on four HRH dimensions—availability, accessibility, acceptability, and quality (AAAQ). The status of these dimensions and their incorporation in the National Health Policies of India (NHPIs) are not well known.Methods
We created a multilevel framework of strategies and actions directed to improve AAAQ HRH dimensions. HRH-related recommendations of NHPI—1983, 2002, and 2017 were classified according to targeted dimensions and cadres using the framework. We identified the dimensions and cadres focussed by NHPIs using the number of mentions. Furthermore, we introduce a family of dimensionwise deficit indices formulated to assess situational HRH deficiencies for census years (1981, 2001, and 2011) and over-year trends. Finally, we evaluated whether or not the HRH recommendations in NHPIs addressed the deficient cadres and dimensions of the pre-NHPI census years.Results
NHPIs focused more on HRH availability and quality compared to accessibility and acceptability. Doctors were prioritized over auxiliary nurses-midwives and pharmacists in terms of total recommendations. AAAQ indices showed deficits in all dimensions for almost all HRH cadres over the years. All deficit indices show a general decreasing trend from 1981 to 2011 except for the accessibility deficit. The recommendations in NHPIs did not correspond to the situational deficits in many instances indicating a policy priority mismatch.Conclusion
India needs to incorporate AAAQ dimensions in its policies and monitor their progress. The framework and indices-based approach can help identify the gaps between targeted and needed dimensions and cadres for effective HRH strengthening. At the global level, the application of framework and indices will allow a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of HRH-related policies of various nations.
Annual prevalence of unmet healthcare need in Thailand: evidence from national household surveys between 2011 and 2019
Extending Universal Health Coverage (UHC) requires identifying and addressing unmet healthcare need and its causes to improve access to essential health services. Unmet need is a useful monitoring indicator to verify if low incidence of catastrophic health spending is not a result of foregone services due to unmet needs. This study assesses the trend, between 2011 and 2019, of prevalence and reasons of unmet healthcare need and identifies population groups who had unmet needs.Method
The unmet healthcare need module in the Health and Welfare Survey (HWS) 2011–2019 was used for analysis. HWS is a nationally representative household survey conducted by the National Statistical Office biennially. There are more than 60,000 respondents in each round of survey. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) standard questions on unmet need and reasons behind were applied for outpatient (OP), inpatient (IP) and dental services in the past 12 months. Data from samples were weighted to represent the Thai population. Univariate analysis was applied to assess unmet need across socioeconomic profiles.Results
The annual prevalence of unmet need between 2011 and 2019 was lower than 3%. The prevalence was 1.3–1.6% for outpatient services, 0.9% - 1.1% for dental services, and lower than 0.2% for inpatient care. A small increasing trend was observed on dental service unmet need, from 0.9% in 2011 to 1.1% in 2019. The poor, the elderly and people living in urban areas had higher unmet needs than their counterparts. Long waiting times was the main reason for unmet need, while cost of treatment was not an issue.Conclusion
The low level of unmet need at less than 3% was lower than OECD average (28%), and was the result of UHC since 2002. Regular monitoring using the national representative household survey to estimate annual prevalence and reasons for unmet need can guide policy to sustain and improve access by certain population groups.
Addressing constraints to informal providers’ involvement in tuberculosis control: a qualitative study of patent medicine dealers and tuberculosis programme managers
A major constraint to tuberculosis control is low case finding with under-reporting to national authorities. Evidence shows that Patent Medicine Dealers are first port of call for most people with symptoms of tuberculosis, yet there is poor referral of such clients to tuberculosis treatment facilities for further evaluation. This study investigated constraints to involvement of Patent Medicine Dealers in tuberculosis control.Methods
This was a cross-sectional qualitative study among Patent Medicine Dealers and Tuberculosis Control Programme Managers in Ebonyi State Nigeria. Sixty-four Patent Medicine Dealers and five Tuberculosis Control Programme Managers were interviewed using Focus Group Discussion and In-Depth Interview respectively. Data was collected with electronic audio-recording device and analyzed using thematic approach.Results
There are some knowledge gaps about tuberculosis signs, symptoms, free-treatment policy and mode of operation of care service among Patent Medicine Dealers. Patent Medicine Dealers and Tuberculosis Control Programme Managers are willing to collaborate in tuberculosis control effort but constant demand for incentives by Patent Medicine Dealers and inability of National Tuberculosis Control Programme to keep up with such demands are obvious constraints.Conclusions
Knowledge gaps in tuberculosis, its control, constant demand for incentives by Patent Medicine Dealers and inability of National Tuberculosis Control Programme to satisfy such demands are constraints to involvement of Patent Medicine Dealers in tuberculosis control. More robust engagement of Patent Medicine Dealers in tuberculosis control with clear job description through tuberculosis education and provision of incentives to support them are recommended policy approaches to improve linkage of clients to tuberculosis treatment facilities.
COVID-19 vaccine uptake among health care workers in Ghana: a case for targeted vaccine deployment campaigns in the global south
Health care workers (HCWs) are among the high-risk groups in contracting and dying from COVID-19. World Health Organization estimates that over 10,000 HCWs in Africa have been infected with COVID-19 making it a significant occupational health hazard to HCWs. In Ghana, over 100 HCWs have already been infected and dozen others died from the virus. Acceptability and uptake of the COVID-19 vaccine is therefore critical to promote health and safety of HCWs as the country battles out of a third wave of the pandemic.Objective
The study sought to ascertain the correlates of HCWs likelihood of participating in a COVID-19 vaccine trial and accepting the vaccine when given the opportunity.Methods
The study was a web-based cross-sectional survey among HCWs (n = 1605) in all sixteen (16) administrative regions in Ghana. Data were analyzed with STATA statistical analysis software (version 14). Chi-square (X2) and Fisher’s exact tests were used to test for differences in categorical variables; bivariate probit regression analysis with Average Marginal Effect (AME) was employed to ascertain the determinants of HCWs’ likelihood of participating in a COVID-19 vaccine trial and taking the vaccine.Results
It was found that 48% of HCWs will participate in a COVID-19 vaccine trial when given the opportunity; 70% will accept the COVID-19 vaccine; younger HCWs (AME = 0.28, SE = 0.16, p < 0.1), non-Christians (AME = 21, SE = 0.09, p < 0.05) and those who worked in faith-based health facilities (AME = 18, SE = 0.07, p < 0.05) were more likely to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine trial. Female HCWs (AME = − 11, SE = 0.04, p < 0.05) and those with lower educational qualification were less likely to accept a COVID-19 vaccine (AME = − 0.16, SE = 0.08, p < 0.1). Reasons cited for unwillingness to participate in a COVID-19 vaccine trial or uptake the vaccine were mainly fear, safety concerns, mistrust, uncertainty, spiritual and religious beliefs.Conclusions
Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine appear to be high among HCWs; conversely, willingness to volunteer for the vaccine trial was low. Continuous targeted and integrated public health education for HCWs will enhance vaccine acceptability to promote safety and population health in the global south as Ghana intensifies efforts to produce COVID-19 vaccines locally.
Factors affecting retention in the Philippine National Rural Physician Deployment Program from 2012 to 2019: a mixed methods study
To address the maldistribution of healthcare providers and the shortage of physicians in geographically isolated and disadvantaged areas of the Philippines, the Philippine National Rural Physician Deployment Program, or more commonly known as the Doctors to the Barrios (DTTB) program was established in 1993. However, as of 2011, only 18% of the DTTBs chose to stay in their assigned municipalities after their two-year deployment, termed retention. This study aims to identify the individual, local, work, national, and international factors affecting the retention of DTTBs in their assigned communities after their two-year deployment.Methods
A descriptive, mixed-methods, explanatory design was used. For the quantitative part, the modified and updated Stayers Questionnaire was given to all current DTTBs present in a Continuing Medical Education session in the Development Academy of the Philippines. Descriptive statistics were then presented. For the qualitative part, individual, semi-structured key informant interviews were conducted in-person or via phone with current and alumni DTTBs from 2012 to 2019. Proceedings of the interviews were transcribed, translated, and analyzed thematically.Results
102 current DTTBs participated in the quantitative part of our study, while 10 current and former DTTBs participated in the interviews. Demographic factors and location, personal beliefs, well-being, friends and family dynamics, and perceptions about work were the individual factors identified to affect retention. Social working conditions, career development, and infrastructure, medical equipment, and supplies were among the work factors identified to affect retention. Geography, living conditions, local social needs, and technology were among the local factors identified to affect retention. Compensation, the recently signed Universal Healthcare Law, and Safety and Security were identified as national factors that could affect retention. International factors did not seem to discourage DTTBs from staying in their communities.Conclusions
A host of individual, work-related, local, national, and international factors influence the DTTB’s decision to be retained in different, complex, interconnected, and dynamic ways. We also identified implementation issues in the DTTB program and suggested interventions to encourage retention.
Midwives’ strategies for coping with barriers to providing quality maternal and neonatal care: a Glaserian grounded theory study
Midwives face direct and indirect barriers in their workplaces that have negative consequences on their ability to provide quality care to women and neonates, however, they still carry on with their duties. This study aimed at investigating the coping strategies that Ghanaian midwives adopt to be able to complete their work.Methods
Glaserian Grounded theory was used in this study. Data were collected through non-participant observations and semi-structured interviews. The study participants included 29 midwives who worked in labour/birthing environments and a pharmacist, a social worker, a national Health Insurance Scheme manager and a health services manager.Findings
The midwives’ motivation due to their strong desire to save the lives of women and neonates and their strong affection for the midwifery profession was identified to help them cope with the barriers that they faced in their workplaces. The midwives’ motivation was found to spur actions such as improvising, taking control of the birthing process and the birthing environment and the maintenance of social and professional networks to help them to complete their duties.Conclusion
Ghanaian midwives face myriad barriers in their workplaces; however, they are able to adopt coping strategies that enable them to complete their duties. The provision of care resources for maternity services in the country will reduce the barriers that the midwives face and improve the quality of maternal and neonatal care. In the short term however, pre and post midwifery educational programmes should focus on developing resilience in the midwifery workforce to help midwives cope more effectively with the challenges that they face in their workplaces.
Challenges facing the More Doctors program (Programa Mais Médicos) in vulnerable and peri-urban areas in Greater Brasilia, Brazil
A shortage of physicians, especially in vulnerable and peri-urban areas, is a global phenomenon that has serious implications for health systems, demanding policies to assure the provision and retention of health workers. The aim of this study was to analyze the strategies employed by the More Doctors Program (Programa Mais Médicos) to provide primary care physicians in vulnerable and peri-urban parts of Greater Brasilia.Methods
The study used a qualitative approach based on the precepts of social constructivism. Forty-nine semi-structured interviews were conducted: 24 with physicians employed as part of the More Doctors program, five with program medical supervisors, seven with secondary care physicians, twelve with primary care coordinators, and one federal administrator. The interviews occurred between March and September 2019. The transcripts of the interviews were submitted to thematic content analysis.Results
The partnership between the Ministry of Health and local authorities was essential for the provision of doctors—especially foreign doctors, most from Cuba, to assist vulnerable population groups previously without access to the health system. There was a notable presence of doctors with experience working with socioeconomically disadvantaged populations, which was important for gaining a better understanding of the effects of the endemic urban violence in the region. The incentives and other institutional support, such as enhanced salaries, training, and housing, transportation, and food allowances, were factors that helped provide a satisfactory working environment. However, the poor state of the infrastructure at some of the primary care units and limitations of the health service as a whole were factors that hampered the provision of comprehensive care, constituting a cause of dissatisfaction.Conclusions
More Doctors introduced a range of novel strategies that helped ensure a supply of primary care doctors in vulnerable and peri-urban parts of Greater Brasilia. The inclusion of foreign doctors, most from Cuba, was crucial for the success of the health services provided for the local communities, who subsist in violent and socioeconomically deprived urban areas. However, it became clear that barriers from within the health service itself hampered the physicians’ capacity to provide a satisfactory service. As such, what is needed for primary care to be effective is not just the recruitment, training, and deployment of doctors, but also investment in the organization of the whole health system.
Management of burnout among the staff of primary care centres in Spain during the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2
The provision of healthcare during the pandemic caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus represented a challenge for the management of the resources in the primary care centres. We proposed assessing burnout among the staff of those centres and identifying factors that contributed to its appearance and those that limited it.Methods
An observational study which, by means of anonymous questionnaires, collected information about: (i) demographic variables; (ii) the characteristics of each position; (iii) the measures implemented by the medical decision-makers in order to provide care during the pandemic; and (iv) the Burnout Clinical Subtype Questionnaire (BCSQ-36). We performed a descriptive analysis of the burnout mentioned by the staff, and, by means of a multivariate analysis, we identified the factors which influenced it. Using logit models, we analysed whether receiving specific training in COVID-19, feeling involved in decision-making processes, and/or working within different healthcare systems had effects on the development of burnout.Results
We analysed the replies of 252 employees of primary care centres in Spain with an average age of 45 (SD = 15.7) and 22 (SD = 11.4) years of experience. 68% of the participants (n = 173) indicated burnout of the frenetic subtype. 79% (n = 200) of the employees had high scores in at least one burnout subtype, and 62% (n = 156) in at least two. Women older than 45 had a lower probability of suffering burnout. Receiving specific training (OR = 0.28; CI95%: 0.11–0.73) and feeling involved in decision-making (OR = 0.32; CI95%:0.15–0.70) each reduced the probability of developing burnout. Working in a different department increased the likelihood of developing burnout of at least one clinical subtype (OR = 2.85; CI95%: 1.38–5.86).Conclusions
The staff in primary care centres have developed high levels of burnout. Participation in decision-making and receiving specific training are revealed as factors that protect against the development of burnout. The measures taken to contain the adverse effects of a heavy workload appear to be insufficient. Certain factors that were not observed, but which are related to decisions taken by the healthcare management, appear to have had an effect on the development of some burnout subtypes.
The degree of equity and coupling coordination of staff in primary medical and health care institutions in China 2013–2019
Primary medical and health care facilities are the first lines of defense for the health of population. This study aims to evaluate the current state and trend of equity and coupling coordination degree (CCD) of staff in primary medical and health care institutions (SPMHCI) based on the quantity and living standards of citizens in China 2013–2019. The research findings are expected to serve as a guideline for the allocation of SPMHCI.Methods
The data used in this study including the quantity and living standards of citizens, as well as the number of SPMHCI in 31 provincial administrative regions of China, were obtained from the China Statistical Yearbook and the China Health Statistics Yearbook. The equity and CCD for SPMHCI were analyzed by using the Gini coefficient and the CCD model, and the Grey forecasting model GM (1, 1) (GM) was used to predict the equity and CCD from 2020 to 2022.Results
Between 2013 and 2019, the number of SPMHCI increased from 3.17 million to 3.50 million, and the population-based Gini coefficient declined from 0.0704 to 0.0513. In urban and rural areas, the Gini coefficients decreased from 0.1185 and 0.0737 to 0.1025 and 0.0611, respectively. The CCD between SPMHCI and citizens’ living standards (CLS) changed from 0.5691, 0.5813, 0.5818 to 0.5650, 0.5634, 0.6088 at national, urban, and rural levels, respectively. The forecasting results of GM revealed that at the national, urban and rural levels from 2020 to 2022, the Gini coefficient would rise at a rate of − 13.53, − 5.77%, and − 6.10%, respectively, while the CCD would grow at a rate of - 0.89, 1.06, and 0.87%, respectively.Conclusions
In China, the number of SPMHCI has increased significantly, with an equitable allocation based on the population. The interaction between SPMHCI and CLS is sufficient, but the degree of mutual promotion is moderate. The government could optimize SPMHCI and improve the chronic disease management services to improve CLS and to ensure the continued operation of primary medical and health care institutions in urban areas.
Increasing doctors working in specific rural regions through selection from and training in the same region: national evidence from Australia
‘Grow your own’ strategies are considered important for developing rural workforce capacity. They involve selecting health students from specific rural regions and training them for extended periods in the same regions, to improve local retention. However, most research about these strategies is limited to single institution studies that lack granularity as to whether the specific regions of origin, training and work are related. This national study aims to explore whether doctors working in specific rural regions also entered medicine from that region and/or trained in the same region, compared with those without these connections to the region. A secondary aim is to explore these associations with duration of rural training.Methods
Utilising a cross-sectional survey of Australian doctors in 2017 (n = 6627), rural region of work was defined as the doctor’s main work location geocoded to one of 42 rural regions. This was matched to both (1) Rural region of undergraduate training (< 12 weeks, 3–12 months, > 1 university year) and (2) Rural region of childhood origin (6+ years), to test association with returning to work in communities of the same rural region.Results
Multinomial logistic regression, which adjusted for specialty, career stage and gender, showed those with > 1 year (RRR 5.2, 4.0–6.9) and 3–12 month rural training (RRR 1.4, 1.1–1.9) were more likely to work in the same rural region compared with < 12 week rural training. Those selected from a specific region and having > 1-year rural training there related to 17.4 times increased chance of working in the same rural region compared with < 12 week rural training and metropolitan origin.Conclusion
This study provides the first national-scale empirical evidence supporting that ‘grow your own’ may be a key workforce capacity building strategy. It supports underserviced rural areas selecting and training more doctors, which may be preferable over policies that select from or train doctors in ‘any’ rural location. Longer training in the same region enhances these outcomes. Reorienting medical training to selecting and training in specific rural regions where doctors are needed is likely to be an efficient means to correcting healthcare access inequalities.