Suscribirse a canal de noticias Springer  Search: "human resources for health"
The latest content available from Springer
Actualizado: hace 15 mins 5 segs

Leadership, politics, and communication: challenges of the epidemiology workforce during emergency response

Lun, 11/04/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Improving the epidemiological response to emergencies requires an understanding of who the responders are, their role and skills, and the challenges they face during responses. In this paper, we explore the role of the epidemiologist and identify challenges they face during emergency response.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional survey to learn more about epidemiologists who respond to public health emergencies. The online survey included open and closed-ended questions on challenges faced while responding, the roles of epidemiology responders, self-rating of skills, and support needed and received. We used purposive sampling to identify participants and a snowballing approach thereafter. We compared data by a number of characteristics, including national or international responder on their last response prior to the survey. We analysed the data using descriptive, content, and exploratory factor analysis.

Results

We received 166 responses from individuals with experience in emergency response. The most frequently reported challenge was navigating the political dynamics of a response, which was more common for international responders than national. National responders experienced fewer challenges related to culture, language, and communication. Epidemiology responders reported a lack of response role clarity, limited knowledge sharing, and communication issues during emergency response. Sixty-seven percent of participants reported they needed support to do their job well; males who requested support were statistically more likely to receive it than females who asked.

Conclusions

Our study identified that national responders have additional strengths, such as better understanding of the local political environment, language, and culture, which may in turn support identification of local needs and priorities. Although this research was conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic, the results are even more relevant now. This research builds on emerging evidence on how to strengthen public health emergency response and provides a platform to begin a global conversation to address operational issues and the role of the international epidemiology responder.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Mitigating psychological distress in healthcare workers as COVID-19 waves ensue: a repeated cross-sectional study from Jordan

Lun, 11/04/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Jordan has experienced several COVID-19 waves in the past 2 years. Cross-sectional studies have been conducted to evaluate distress in healthcare practitioners (HCPs), but there is limited evidence with regards to the impact of continuing pandemic waves on levels of distress in HCPs. We previously studied psychological distress in HCPs during the start of the pandemic (period 1, when cases were infrequent and the country was in lockdown), and demonstrated that HCPs were experiencing considerable stress, despite the country reporting low caseloads at the time. In this study, we sought to utilize the same methodology to reexamine levels of distress as COVID-19 peaked in the country and HCPs began managing large numbers of COVID-19 cases (period 2).

Methods

A cross-sectional online survey utilizing a tool previously used during period 1 was completed by HCPs working in various settings. Demographic, professional and psychological factors such as distress, anxiety, depression, burnout, sleep issues, exhaustion, and fear were assessed; and coping strategies also were measured. Items in the tool were assessed for reliability and validity. A multivariable regression was used to identify factors that continued to impact distress during period 2.

Results

Samples in both periods (n = 937, n = 876, respectively) were relatively comparable in demographic characteristics, but in period 2, a greater proportion of nurses and healthcare practitioners reported working in general hospitals. During the pandemic peak (period 2), 49.0% of HCPs reported high levels of distress (compared to 32% in period 1); anxiety and depression scores were approximately 21% higher in period 2; and 50.6% reported fatigue (compared to 34.3% in period 1). Variables significantly associated with greater distress in period 2 included experiencing burnout, experiencing sleep disturbances, being fatigued, having fatalistic fears, and having fears related to workload. Conversely, being male, reporting satisfaction at work, and using positive coping practices were associated with a significantly lower odds of being in distress.

Conclusions

Between the two periods (early pandemic and first wave), COVID-19-related mental health continued to deteriorate among HCPs, highlighting the need to do more to support HCP front-liners facing COVID-19 surges.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Medical education interventions influencing physician distribution into underserved communities: a scoping review

Jue, 07/04/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background and objective

Physician maldistribution is a global problem that hinders patients’ abilities to access healthcare services. Medical education presents an opportunity to influence physicians towards meeting the healthcare needs of underserved communities when establishing their practice. Understanding the impact of educational interventions designed to offset physician maldistribution is crucial to informing health human resource strategies aimed at ensuring that the disposition of the physician workforce best serves the diverse needs of all patients and communities.

Methods

A scoping review was conducted using a six-stage framework to help map current evidence on educational interventions designed to influence physicians’ decisions or intention to establish practice in underserved areas. A search strategy was developed and used to conduct database searches. Data were synthesized according to the types of interventions and the location in the medical education professional development trajectory, that influence physician intention or decision for rural and underserved practice locations.

Results

There were 130 articles included in the review, categorized according to four categories: preferential admissions criteria, undergraduate training in underserved areas, postgraduate training in underserved areas, and financial incentives. A fifth category was constructed to reflect initiatives comprised of various combinations of these four interventions. Most studies demonstrated a positive impact on practice location, suggesting that selecting students from underserved or rural areas, requiring them to attend rural campuses, and/or participate in rural clerkships or rotations are influential in distributing physicians in underserved or rural locations. However, these studies may be confounded by various factors including rural origin, pre-existing interest in rural practice, and lifestyle. Articles also had various limitations including self-selection bias, and a lack of standard definition for underservedness.

Conclusions

Various educational interventions can influence physician practice location: preferential admissions criteria, rural experiences during undergraduate and postgraduate medical training, and financial incentives. Educators and policymakers should consider the social identity, preferences, and motivations of aspiring physicians as they have considerable impact on the effectiveness of education initiatives designed to influence physician distribution in underserved locations.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Perspectives on deployment of humanitarian workers through operational partnerships during the acute emergency health response to the Rohingya refugee crisis in Cox’s Bazar

Jue, 07/04/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The unprecedented influx of Rohingya refugees into Cox’s Bazar, Bangladesh, in 2017 led to a humanitarian emergency requiring large numbers of humanitarian workers to be deployed to the region. The World Health Organization (WHO) contributed to this effort through well-established deployment mechanisms: the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network (GOARN) and the Standby Partnerships (SBP). The study captures the views and experiences of those humanitarian workers deployed by WHO through operational partnerships between December 2017 and February 2019 with the purpose of identifying challenges and good practice during the deployment process, and steps to their improvement.

Methods

A mixed methods design was used. A desktop review was conducted to describe the demographics of the humanitarian workers deployed to Cox’s Bazar and the work that was undertaken. Interviews were conducted with a subset of the respondents to elicit their views relating to their experiences of working as part of the humanitarian response. Thematic analysis was used to identify key themes.

Results

We identified sixty-five deployments during the study period. Respondents’ previous experience ranged between 3 and 28 years (mean 9.7 years). The duration of deployment ranged from 8 to 278 days (mean 67 days) and there was a higher representation of workers from Western Pacific and European regions. Forty-one interviews were conducted with people who experienced differing aspects of the deployment process. Key themes elicited from interviews related to staffing, the deployment process, the office environment and capacity building. Various issues raised have since been addressed, including the establishment of a sub-office structure, introduction of online training prior to deployment, and a staff wellbeing committee.

Conclusions

This study identified successes and areas for improvement for deployments during emergencies. The themes and subthemes elicited can be used to inform policy and practice changes, as well as the development of performance indicators. Common findings between this study and previous literature indicate the pivotal role of staff deployments through partnership agreements during health emergency response operations and a need for continuous improvements of processes to ensure maximum effectiveness.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Impact of reliable light and electricity on job satisfaction among maternity health workers in Uganda: A cluster randomized trial

Mar, 29/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Maintaining a motivated health workforce is critical to health system effectiveness and quality of care. Scant evidence exists on whether interventions aimed to strengthen health infrastructure in low-resource settings affect health workers. This study evaluated the impact of an intervention providing solar light and electricity to rural maternity facilities in Uganda on health workers’ job satisfaction.

Methods

We used a mixed-methods design embedded in a cluster randomized trial to evaluate whether and how the We Care Solar Suitcase intervention, a solar electric system providing lighting and power, affected health workers in rural Ugandan maternity facilities with unreliable light. Facilities were randomly assigned to receive the intervention or not without blinding in a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Outcomes were assessed through two rounds of surveys with health workers. We used regression analyses to examine the intervention’s impact on job satisfaction. We used an inductive approach to analyze qualitative data to understand the study context and interpret quantitative findings.

Results

We interviewed 85 health workers across 30 facilities, the majority of whom were midwives or nurses. Qualitative reports indicated that unreliable light made it difficult to provide care, worsened facility conditions, and harmed health workers and patients. Before the intervention, only 4% of health workers were satisfied with their access to light and electricity. After the installation, satisfaction with light increased by 76 percentage points [95% confidence interval (CI): 61–92 percentage points], although satisfaction with electricity did not change. Experience of negative impacts of lack of overhead light also significantly decreased and the intervention modestly increased job satisfaction. Qualitative evidence illustrated how the intervention may have strengthened health workers’ sense of job security and confidence in providing high-quality care while pointing towards implementation challenges and other barriers health workers faced.

Conclusions

Reliable access to light and electricity directly affects health workers’ ability to provide maternal and neonatal care and modestly improves job satisfaction. Policy makers should invest in health infrastructure as part of multifaceted policy strategies to strengthen human resources for health and to improve maternal and newborn health services.

Trial registration socialscienceregistry.org: AEARCTR-0003078. Registered June 12, 2018, https://www.socialscienceregistry.org/trials/3078

Additionally registered on: ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03589625, Registered July 18, 2018, https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03589625)

Categorías: Investigaciones

Primary care provider notions on instituting community-based geriatric support in Uganda

Mar, 29/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Understanding of the most economical and sustainable models of providing geriatric care to Africa’s rising ageing population is critical. In Uganda, the number of old adults (60 years and above) continues to rise against absence of policies and guidelines, and models for providing care to this critical population. Our study explored public primary health care provider views on how best community-based geriatric support (CBGS) could be instituted as an adaptable model for delivering geriatric care in Uganda’s resource-limited primary public health care settings.

Methods

We interviewed 20 key informants from four districts of Bukomansimbi, Kalungu, Rakai, and Lwengo in Southern Central Uganda. Respondents were leads (in-charges) of public primary health units that had spent at least 6 months at the fore said facilities. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed based on Hsieh and Shannon’s approach to conventional manifest content analysis.

Results

During analysis, four themes emerged: 1) Structures to leverage for CBGS, 2) How to promote CBGS, 3) Who should be involved in CBGS, and 4) What activities need to be leveraged to advance CBGS? The majority of the respondents viewed using the existing village health team and local leadership structures as key to the successful institutionalization of CBGS; leveraging community education and sensitization using radio, television, and engaging health workers, family relatives, and neighbors. Health outreach activities were mentioned as one of the avenues that could be leveraged to provide CBGS.

Conclusion

Provider notions pointed to CBGS as a viable model for instituting geriatric care in Uganda’s public primary healthcare system. However, this requires policymakers to leverage existing village health team and local governance structures, conduct community education and sensitization about CBGS, and bring onboard health workers, family relatives, and neighbors.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Dermatology workforce over a decade in Saudi Arabia: demographics, distributions, and future challenges

Lun, 28/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The dermatology workforce is an important topic, as many countries are facing an undersupply of dermatologists, while some are expecting a surplus. Therefore, we conducted this study to identify the current dermatology workforce demographics in Saudi Arabia (SA) and the changes in such demographics over the last 10 years to identify future workforce-related challenges.

Methods

This study was conducted in SA, and it included all the practicing dermatologists in the country over the last decade (2010–2020). The number of practicing dermatologists, their gender, their nationality, and dermatology residency candidates and graduates were obtained from the Saudi Commission for Health Specialties (SCFHS). The geographic distribution of dermatologists was obtained from the Ministry of Health Statistical Yearbook 2018.

Results

As of September 2020, there were 2678 practicing dermatologists in SA at a ratio of 7.82 dermatologists per 100 000 people. Of the 2678 dermatologists, only 24.8% were Saudis. The Saudi dermatologist ratio has been almost constant over 10 years, ranging from 1.3 to 1.9 per 100 000 people. Of all Saudi dermatologists, 42% were female. The number of residents who graduated from the residency program was not consistent for each year and ranged from 4 to 25. The number of dermatologists varied by region, with 9.2 in Riyadh and 3.4 in Najran per 100 000 people.

Conclusions

The results of our study revealed that a quarter of dermatologists in SA are Saudis. In addition, the number of non-Saudi dermatologists has increased in the last 10 years, while the number of Saudi dermatologists to the population has remained almost constant. There is also a geographic maldistribution of dermatologists, with urban areas having a higher number of dermatologists than rural areas. We encourage local studies that can elucidate the factors influencing the workforce, such as the dermatologist appointment waiting time, dermatologists’ working hours, and the geographic maldistribution of dermatologists in the country.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Translation of policy for reducing undernutrition from national to sub-national levels in Rwanda

Vie, 25/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract

Understanding how countries improve children’s nutrition can inform policies and contribute to further improvements. We examined the relationship between improvements in nutrition in Rwanda (1992–2017) and political commitment to- and policy coherence in- nutrition. We reviewed nutrition-relevant Rwandan policies and programs (2000–2018) and conducted 90 semi-structured interviews with national (n = 32), mid-level (n = 38), and community (n = 20) nutrition stakeholders and 40 community-level focus group discussions (FGDs). FGDs and sub-national interviews were conducted in ten purposefully selected districts, five each in which stunting decreased (reduced) and increased or stagnated (non-reduced) between the 2010 and 2014/15 Rwanda Demographic and Health Surveys. Analysis consisted of thematic analysis and the assessment of events, policy developments, and strategies that influenced nutrition in Rwanda, including operationalization of political commitment and policy coherence for nutrition. Political and institutional commitment to nutrition increased in Rwanda as evidenced by the adoption of a multisectoral nutrition policy that was reinforced with national and subnational horizontal coordination platforms. These platforms strengthened multisectoral strategies to address nutrition and supported operational and institutional commitment. The role of mid-level actors in nutrition governance increased as responsibilities for planning, implementing, and monitoring nutrition programs were increasingly delegated to sub-national administrative levels. Variations in policy implementation existed between reduced and non-reduced districts. Despite improvements, challenges remained in coordination, financial commitment, and capacity to address, monitor, and evaluate nutrition. Political commitment to- and policy coherence in- nutrition at the national level are important for improving nutrition, and when reinforced institutionally, can be translated to sub-national levels where implementation occurs.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Relevant HRH leadership during public health emergencies

Jue, 24/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Inadequate leadership capacity compounds the world's workforce lack of preparedness for outbreaks of all sizes, as illustrated by the COVID-19 pandemic.

Traditional human resources for health (HRH) leadership has focused on determining the health workforce requirements, often failing to fully consider the unpredictability associated with issues such as public health emergencies (PHE).

Main arguments

The current COVID-19 pandemic demonstrates that policy-making and relevant leadership have to be effective under conditions of ethical uncertainty and with inconclusive evidence. The forces at work in health labor markets (HLM) entail leadership that bridges across sectors and all levels of the health systems. Developing and applying leadership competencies must then be understood from a systemic as well as an individual perspective. To address the challenges described and to achieve universal health coverage (UHC) by 2030, countries need to develop effective HRH leaderships relevant to the complexity of HLM in the most diverse contexts, including acute surge events during PHE. In complex and rapidly changing contexts, such as PHE, leadership needs to be attentive, nimble, adaptive, action oriented, transformative, accountable and provided throughout the system, i.e., authentic, distributed and participatory. This type of leadership is particularly important, as it can contribute to complex organizational changes as required in surge events associated with PHE, even in in the absence of formal management plans, roles, and structures. To deal with the uncertainty it needs agile tools that may allow prompt human resources impact assessments.

Conclusions

The complexity of PHE requires transformative, authentic, distributed and participatory leadership of HRH. The unpredictable aspects of the dynamics of the HLM during PHE require the need to rethink, adapt and operationalize appropriate tools, such as HRH impact assessment tools, to redirect workforce operations rapidly and with precision.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Health care workers’ experiences during the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review

Jue, 24/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

COVID-19 has challenged health systems worldwide, especially the health workforce, a pillar crucial for health systems resilience. Therefore, strengthening health system resilience can be informed by analyzing health care workers’ (HCWs) experiences and needs during pandemics. This review synthesizes qualitative studies published during the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic to identify factors affecting HCWs’ experiences and their support needs during the pandemic. This review was conducted using the Joanna Briggs Institute methodology for scoping reviews. A systematic search on PubMed was applied using controlled vocabularies. Only original studies presenting primary qualitative data were included.

Results

161 papers that were published from the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic up until 28th March 2021 were included in the review. Findings were presented using the socio-ecological model as an analytical framework. At the individual level, the impact of the pandemic manifested on HCWs’ well-being, daily routine, professional and personal identity. At the interpersonal level, HCWs’ personal and professional relationships were identified as crucial. At the institutional level, decision-making processes, organizational aspects and availability of support emerged as important factors affecting HCWs’ experiences. At community level, community morale, norms, and public knowledge were of importance. Finally, at policy level, governmental support and response measures shaped HCWs’ experiences. The review identified a lack of studies which investigate other HCWs than doctors and nurses, HCWs in non-hospital settings, and HCWs in low- and lower middle income countries.

Discussion

This review shows that the COVID-19 pandemic has challenged HCWs, with multiple contextual factors impacting their experiences and needs. To better understand HCWs’ experiences, comparative investigations are needed which analyze differences across as well as within countries, including differences at institutional, community, interpersonal and individual levels. Similarly, interventions aimed at supporting HCWs prior to, during and after pandemics need to consider HCWs’ circumstances.

Conclusions

Following a context-sensitive approach to empowering HCWs that accounts for the multitude of aspects which influence their experiences could contribute to building a sustainable health workforce and strengthening health systems for future pandemics.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Evaluation of compassionate and respectful care implementation status in model healthcare facilities: a cross-sectional study

Mié, 16/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Compassionate respectful, and caring (CRC) creates a pleasant environment for health workforce (HWF), customers, and families. For the past five years, the Ethiopian Ministry of Health (EMoH) has developed a CRC plan to improve person-centered care. Therefore, we aimed to assess the implementation status of CRC and associated factors in the 16 model health facilities (MHFs) in Ethiopia.

Methods

A cross-sectional study was employed from February to April 2021. A structured and semi-structured questionnaire was used to assess the level of CRC implementation in model health care facilities. Epi-data version 4.3 and SPSS version 26 software were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Binary logistic regressions analysis was used and significance was obtained at the odds ratio with a 95% confidence interval and P-value < 0.05.

Results

A total of 429 HWF participated in a self-administered questionnaire. The prevalence of compassionate and respectful care among HWF were 60.4%, and 64% respectively. Nurse professionals, midwives, having training on CRC, leader promoting CRC, having a conducive working environment and burnout management for HWF were significantly associated with compassionate care practice. Leaders promoting CRC, having a conducive working environment, and burnout management for HWF were significantly associated with respectful care practice.

Conclusion

The findings identified distinct issues related to CRC implementation in each 16 MHF. Addressing HWF skill gaps, a conducive working environment, and burnout management are encouraged CRC continuity. Incorporate CRC in pre-service education, health system strengthening, and motivating HWF are important for CRC strategic implementation.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Analysing 3429 digital supervisory interactions between Community Health Workers in Uganda and Kenya: the development, testing and validation of an open access predictive machine learning web app

Mié, 16/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Despite the growth in mobile technologies (mHealth) to support Community Health Worker (CHW) supervision, the nature of mHealth-facilitated supervision remains underexplored. One strategy to support supervision at scale could be artificial intelligence (AI) modalities, including machine learning. We developed an open access, machine learning web application (CHWsupervisor) to predictively code instant messages exchanged between CHWs based on supervisory interaction codes. We document the development and validation of the web app and report its predictive accuracy.

Methods

CHWsupervisor was developed using 2187 instant messages exchanged between CHWs and their supervisors in Uganda. The app was then validated on 1242 instant messages from a separate digital CHW supervisory network in Kenya. All messages from the training and validation data sets were manually coded by two independent human coders. The predictive performance of CHWsupervisor was determined by comparing the primary supervisory codes assigned by the web app, against those assigned by the human coders and calculating observed percentage agreement and Cohen’s kappa coefficients.

Results

Human inter-coder reliability for the primary supervisory category of messages across the training and validation datasets was ‘substantial’ to ‘almost perfect’, as suggested by observed percentage agreements of 88–95% and Cohen’s kappa values of 0.7–0.91. In comparison to the human coders, the predictive accuracy of the CHWsupervisor web app was ‘moderate’, suggested by observed percentage agreements of 73–78% and Cohen’s kappa values of 0.51–0.56.

Conclusions

Augmenting human coding is challenging because of the complexity of supervisory exchanges, which often require nuanced interpretation. A realistic understanding of the potential of machine learning approaches should be kept in mind by practitioners, as although they hold promise, supportive supervision still requires a level of human expertise. Scaling-up digital CHW supervision may therefore prove challenging.

Trial registration: This was not a clinical trial and was therefore not registered as such.

Categorías: Investigaciones

An e-learning pediatric cardiology curriculum for Pediatric Postgraduate trainees in Rwanda: implementation and evaluation

Mié, 16/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Access to pediatric sub-specialty training is a critical unmet need in many resource-limited settings. In Rwanda, only two pediatric cardiologists are responsible for the country’s clinical care of a population of 12 million, along with the medical education of all pediatric trainees. To strengthen physician training opportunities, we developed an e-learning curriculum in pediatric cardiology. This curriculum aimed to “flip the classroom”, allowing residents to learn key pediatric cardiology concepts digitally before an in-person session with the specialist, thus efficiently utilizing the specialist for additional case based and bedside teaching.

Methods

We surveyed Rwandan and US faculty and residents using a modified Delphi approach to identify key topics in pediatric cardiology. Lead authors from Rwanda and the USA collaborated with OPENPediatrics™, a free digital knowledge-sharing platform, to produce ten core topics presented in structured videos spanning 4.5 h. A mixed methods evaluation was completed with Rwandan pediatric residents, including surveys assessing knowledge, utilization, and satisfaction. Qualitative analysis of structured interviews was conducted using NVivo.

Results

Among the 43 residents who participated in the OPENPediatrics™ cardiology curriculum, 33 (77%) completed the curriculum assessment. Residents reported using the curriculum for a median of 8 h. Thirty-eight (88%) reported viewing the curriculum on their personal or hospital computer via pre-downloaded materials on a USB flash drive, with another seven (16%) reporting viewing it online. Twenty-seven residents viewed the course during core lecture time (63%). Commonly reported barriers to utilization included lack of time (70%), access to internet (40%) and language (24%). Scores on knowledge assessment improved from 66.2% to 76.7% upon completion of the curriculum (p < 0.001) across all levels of training, with most significant improvement in scores for PGY-1 and PGY-2 residents. Residents reported high satisfaction with the visuals, engaging presentation, and organization of the curriculum. Residents opined the need for expanded training material in cardiac electrocardiogram and echocardiogram and requested for slower narration by foreign presenters.

Conclusion

Video-based e-learning via OPENPediatrics™ in a resource-limited setting was effective in improving resident’s knowledge in pediatric cardiology with high levels of utilization and satisfaction. Expanding access to digital curriculums for other pediatric sub-specialties may be both an effective and efficient strategy for improving training in settings with limited access to subspecialist faculty.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The Association between Health Workforce and Health Outcomes: A Cross-Country Econometric Study

Lun, 14/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract

This study investigates the strength and significance of the associations of health workforce with multiple health outcomes and COVID-19 excess deaths across countries, using the latest WHO dataset. Multiple log-linear regression analyses, counterfactual scenarios analyses, and Pearson correlation analyses were performed. The average density of health workforce and the average levels of health outcomes were strongly associated with country income level. A higher density of the health workforce, especially the aggregate density of skilled health workers and density of nursing and midwifery personnel, was significantly associated with better levels of several health outcomes, including maternal mortality ratio, under-five mortality rate, infant mortality rate, and neonatal mortality rate, and was significantly correlated with a lower level of COVID-19 excess deaths per 100 K people, though not robust to weighting by population. The low density of the health workforce, especially in relatively low-income countries, can be a major barrier to improving these health outcomes and achieving health-related SDGs; however, improving the density of the health workforce alone is far from enough to achieve these goals. Our study suggests that investment in health workforce should be an integral part of strategies to achieve health-related SDGs, and achieving non-health SDGs related to poverty alleviation and expansion of female education are complementary to achieving both sets of goals, especially for those low- and middle-income countries. In light of the strains on the health workforce during the current COVID-19 pandemic, more attention should be paid to health workforce to strengthen health system resilience and long-term improvement in health outcomes.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Performance of the Mexican nursing labor market: a repeated cross-sectional study, 2005–2019

Sáb, 12/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

The close link between human resources for health and the performance of health systems calls for a comprehensive study of the labor market. This paper proposes a performance metric for the nursing labor market, measures its magnitude and analyzes its predictors over the last 15 years.

Design and methods

A repeated cross-sectional analysis using data from the quarterly population-based National Survey of Occupation and Employment 2005–2019 (ENOE in Spanish). An aggregate total of 19,311 Mexican nurses (population N = 4,816,930) was analyzed. Nursing labor market performance was defined as the level of non-precarious employment of nurses in the health sector. After describing the sociodemographic, labor and contextual characteristics of the nurses surveyed, we identified the key correlates of market performance using repeated cross-sectional multiple logistic regression analysis. We then estimated the adjusted prevalence of market performance according to the survey period and socioeconomic region of residence.

Results

The exogenous indicators analyzed shed light on various aspects of the market structure. Unemployment remained stable at 5% during the period examined, but underemployment rose by 26% and precarious employment, our endogenous indicator, also grew significantly. On the whole, our indicators revealed a notable deterioration in the structure of the nursing labor market; they varied by age and sex as well as between public and private institutions. Although the steepest deterioration occurred in the private sector, we observed an increase in precarious jobs among public institutions formerly protective of employment conditions.

Conclusions

The deterioration of the labor market jeopardizes the ability of nursing professionals to participate in the market as well as to obtain secure jobs once they do enter. The Mexican Health System suffers from a chronic dearth of nurses, reducing its capacity to achieve its core objectives including enhanced coverage and increased effectiveness. Nursing workforce planning requires a context where the conditions in which the market currently operates, and its potential deterioration are considered.

Categorías: Investigaciones

What makes community health worker models for tuberculosis active case finding work? A cross-sectional study of TB REACH projects to identify success factors for increasing case notifications

Sáb, 12/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

In the field of tuberculosis (TB), Community Healthcare Workers (CHWs) have been engaged for advocacy, case detection, and patient support in a wide range of settings. Estimates predict large-scale shortfalls of healthcare workers in low- and middle-income settings by 2030 and strategies are needed to optimize the health workforce to achieve universal availability and accessibility of healthcare. In 2018, the World Health Organization (WHO) published guidelines on best practices for CHW engagement, and identified remaining knowledge gaps. Stop TB Partnership’s TB REACH initiative has supported interventions using CHWs to deliver TB care in over 30 countries, and utilized the same primary indicator to measure project impact at the population-level for all TB active case finding projects, which makes the results comparable across multiple settings. This study compiled 10 years of implementation data from the initiative’s grantee network to begin to address key knowledge gaps in CHW networks.

Methods

We conducted a cross-sectional study analyzing the TB REACH data repository (n = 123) and primary survey responses (n = 50) of project implementers. We designed a survey based on WHO guidelines to understand projects’ practices on CHW recruitment, training, activities, supervision, compensation, and sustainability. We segmented projects by TB notification impact and fitted linear random-effect regression models to identify practices associated with higher changes in notifications.

Results

Most projects employed CHWs for advocacy alongside case finding and holding activities. Model characteristics associated with higher project impact included incorporating e-learning in training and having the prospect of CHWs continuing their responsibilities at the close of a project. Factors that trended towards being associated with higher impact were community-based training, differentiated contracts, and non-monetary incentives.

Conclusion

In line with WHO guidelines, our findings emphasize that successful implementation approaches provide CHWs with comprehensive training, continuous supervision, fair compensation, and are integrated within the existing primary healthcare system. However, we encountered a great degree of heterogeneity in CHW engagement models, resulting in few practices clearly associated with higher notifications.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Supportive supervision from a roving nurse mentor in a community health worker programme: a process evaluation in South Africa

Jue, 10/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Many low and middle- income countries (LMICs) are repositioning community health worker (CHW) programmes to provide a more comprehensive range of promotive and preventive services and referrals to the formal health service. However, insufficient supervision, fragmented programmes, and the low literacy levels of CHWs often result in the under-performance of the programmes. We evaluate the impact of a roving nurse mentor working with CHW teams proving supportive supervision in a semi-rural area of South Africa.

Methods

We conducted a longitudinal process evaluation, using in-depth interviews, focus groups and observations prior to the intervention, during the intervention, and 6 months post-intervention to assess how the effects of the intervention were generated and sustained. Our participants were CHWs, their supervisors, clients and facility staff members and community representatives.

Results

The nurse mentor operated in an environment of resource shortages, conflicts between CHWs and facility staff, and an active CHW labour union. Over 15 months, the mentor was able to (1) support and train CHWs and their supervisors to gain and practice new skills, (2) address their fears of failing and (3) establish operational systems to address inefficiencies in the CHWs’ activities, resulting in improved service provision. Towards the end of the intervention the direct employment of the CHWs by the Department of Health and an increase in their stipend added to their motivation and integration into the local primary care clinic team. However, given the communities’ focus on accessing government housing, rather than better healthcare, and volatile nature of the communities, the nurse mentor was not able to establish a collaboration with local structures.

Conclusions

A roving nurse mentor overseeing several CHW teams within a district healthcare system is a feasible option, particularly in a context where there is a shortage of qualified supervisors to support CHWs activities. A roving nurse mentor can contribute to the knowledge and skills development of the CHWs and enhance the capacity of junior supervisors. However, the long-term sustainability of the effects of intervention is dependent on CHWs’ formal employment by the Department of Health.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Methodological issues on “Stakeholder attitudes to the regulation of traditional and complementary medicine professions: a systematic review”

Mié, 09/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract

Systematic reviews cling to the doctrine that science has an updating databank and attempt to identify all available evidence by featured eligibility criteria to find the answer to a unique scientific question. Therefore, to reach this aim, these researches should use a wise method and comprehensive search strategy, as they are widely used to guide clinical and political decisions and the establishment of future researches. We would like to appreciate Jenny Carè, Amie Steel, and Jon Wardle for the valuable article “Stakeholder attitudes to the regulation of traditional and complementary medicine professions: a systematic review”. Some important missed search terms in the field of traditional medicine names and traditional and complementary medicine (T&CM) regulation concepts were discussed in the article.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Inequal distribution of nursing personnel: a subnational analysis of the distribution of nurses across 58 countries

Sáb, 05/03/2022 - 00:00
Abstract Background

Nursing personnel are critical for enabling access to health service in primary health care. However, the State of the World’s Nursing 2020 report showed important inequalities in nurse availability between countries.

Methods

The purpose of this study/analysis was to describe the differences in nurse-to-population density in 58 countries from six regional areas and the relationship between differences in access to nurses and other indicators of health equity.

Results

All countries and income groups showed subnational inequalities in the distribution of nursing personnel with Gini coefficients ranging from 1 to 39. The latter indicated situation such as 13% of the population having access to 45% of nurses in a country. The average max-to-min ratio was on average of 11-fold. In our sample, the African region had the highest level of subnational inequalities with the average Gini coefficient of 19.6. The European Region had the lowest level of within-country inequalities with the average Gini coefficient being 5.6. A multivariate analysis showed a clustering of countries in three groups: (1) high Gini coefficients comprised mainly African countries; (2) moderate Gini coefficients comprised mainly South-East Asian, Central and South American countries; (3) low Gini coefficients comprised mainly Western countries, Japan, and Korea. The analysis also showed that inequality in distribution of nurses was correlated with other indices of health and inequality such as the Human Development Index, maternal mortality, and life expectancy.

Conclusions

This study showed that there is a high level of geographic inequality in the distribution of nurses at subnational level. Inequalities in nursing distribution are multifactorial, to improve access to nurses, policies should be bundled, tailored to the local context and tackle the various root causes for inequalities.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Páginas