Prevalence and pattern of migration intention of doctors undergoing training programmes in public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria.

BACKGROUND: Emigration of Nigerian doctors, including those undergoing training, to the developed countries in Europe and Americas has reached an alarming rate. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed at assessing the prevalence, pattern, and determinants of migration intention among doctors undergoing residency and internship training programmes in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti state, Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collected from 182 doctors undergoing residency and internship training at the two tertiary hospitals. An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on migration intention among the eligible respondents. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate data analyses were done. The level of significance was determined at p-value < 0.05. RESULTS: Majority (53.9%) of doctors undergoing training were between 30-39 years, and the mean age was 33.2 ± 5.7 years, male respondents were 68.1%, and 53.8% of the respondents were married. The proportion of doctors undergoing training who had the intention to migrate abroad to practice was 74.2%. A higher proportion of the internship trainees, 79.5%, intended to migrate abroad to practice while the proportion among the resident doctors, was 70.6%. Among the respondents who intended to migrate abroad to practice, 85(63%) intend to migrate abroad within the next 2 years, while the preferred countries of destination were the United Kingdom 65(48.2%), Canada 29 (21.5%), Australia 20 (14.8%) and the United States 18(13.3%). Seventy percent of respondents who intend to migrate abroad had started working on implementation of their intention to migrate abroad. The majority of the junior resident doctors, 56(72.7%), intend to migrate abroad compared with the senior resident doctors, 21(27.3%), (χ2 = 14.039; p < 0.001). The determinants of migration intention are the stage of residency training and level of job satisfaction. CONCLUSION: There is a high prevalence of migration intention among the doctors undergoing training in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, with the majority already working on their plans to migrate abroad. Doctors undergoing training who are satisfied with their job and those who are in the senior stage of residency training programme are less inclined to migrate abroad. RECOMMENDATIONS: The hospital management in the tertiary hospitals should develop retention strategies for human resources for health, especially doctors undergoing training in their establishment, to avert the possible problems of dearth of specialists in the tertiary health facilities. Also, necessary support should be provided for the residency training programme in the tertiary health institutions to make transition from junior to senior residency stage less strenuous.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Prevalence and pattern of migration intention of doctors undergoing training programmes in public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria

Abstract Background

Emigration of Nigerian doctors, including those undergoing training, to the developed countries in Europe and Americas has reached an alarming rate.

Objective

This study aimed at assessing the prevalence, pattern, and determinants of migration intention among doctors undergoing residency and internship training programmes in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti state, Nigeria.

Methods

This was a cross-sectional study using a quantitative data collected from 182 doctors undergoing residency and internship training at the two tertiary hospitals. An adapted semi-structured questionnaire was used to collect information on migration intention among the eligible respondents. Univariate, bivariate and multivariate data analyses were done. The level of significance was determined at p-value < 0.05.

Results

Majority (53.9%) of doctors undergoing training were between 30–39 years, and the mean age was 33.2 ± 5.7 years, male respondents were 68.1%, and 53.8% of the respondents were married. The proportion of doctors undergoing training who had the intention to migrate abroad to practice was 74.2%. A higher proportion of the internship trainees, 79.5%, intended to migrate abroad to practice while the proportion among the resident doctors, was 70.6%. Among the respondents who intended to migrate abroad to practice, 85(63%) intend to migrate abroad within the next 2 years, while the preferred countries of destination were the United Kingdom 65(48.2%), Canada 29 (21.5%), Australia 20 (14.8%) and the United States 18(13.3%). Seventy percent of respondents who intend to migrate abroad had started working on implementation of their intention to migrate abroad. The majority of the junior resident doctors, 56(72.7%), intend to migrate abroad compared with the senior resident doctors, 21(27.3%), (χ2 = 14.039; p < 0.001). The determinants of migration intention are the stage of residency training and level of job satisfaction.

Conclusion

There is a high prevalence of migration intention among the doctors undergoing training in the public tertiary hospitals in Ekiti State, Nigeria, with the majority already working on their plans to migrate abroad. Doctors undergoing training who are satisfied with their job and those who are in the senior stage of residency training programme are less inclined to migrate abroad.

Recommendations

The hospital management in the tertiary hospitals should develop retention strategies for human resources for health, especially doctors undergoing training in their establishment, to avert the possible problems of dearth of specialists in the tertiary health facilities. Also, necessary support should be provided for the residency training programme in the tertiary health institutions to make transition from junior to senior residency stage less strenuous.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Análisis psicométrico y validez de la Escala de Disposición al Aprendizaje Interprofesional en estudiantes de enfermería en Chile

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 24/10/2022 - 05:53
Introducción: La educación interprofesional ofrece a los estudiantes de salud una oportunidad para aprender, practicar y mejorar las habilidades de comunicación y colaboración a través de la experiencia de aprendizaje con otras profesiones. Es importante determinar la disposición que tienen de involucrarse activamente con otros estudiantes en su proceso de aprendizaje, lo que se evalúa a través de la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional, una de las más usadas internacionalmente. El objetivo fue adaptar y validar al español la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional (RIPLS) en estudiantes de enfermería.Método: Diseño de estudio cuantitativo transversal, a una muestra de 330 estudiantes de enfermería de diferentes años, se realizó Alfa de Cronbach y análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio.Resultados: La escala original tenía 23 ítems, solo 16 cumplen con los criterios de validez y confiabilidad. Los 16 ítems, se distribuyen en las dimensiones: Colaboración y trabajo en equipo (CyTE: 10 ítems), Trabajo centrado en el paciente (PC: 4 ítems) y Sentido e Identidad Profesional (PI: 2 ítems). El índice alfa de Cronbach de la escala completa fue de 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61).Conclusión: La escala RIPL validada en este estudio tiene confiabilidad y validez adecuada para las dimensiones Trabajo en equipo y colaboración y Trabajo centrado en el paciente. Se requiere elaborar nuevos ítems para Sentido e Identidad profesional. (AU) Introduction: Interprofessional education offers health students an opportunity to learn, practice, and improve communication and collaboration skills through learning experiences with other professions. It is important to determine their willingness to actively engage with other students in their learning process, which is assessed through the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning scale, one of the most widely used internationally. The objective was to adapt and validate the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale to Spanish among nursing students. Method: The study design was cross-sectional quantitative, with a sample of 330 nursing students of different years. Cronbach's Alpha and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: The original scale had 23 items, only 16 met the validity and reliability criteria. The 16 items are distributed in the dimensions: Teamwork and collaboration (T: 10 items), Patient Centered Work(EP: 4 items) and Professional identity (PI: 2 items). Cronbach's alpha index for the full scale was 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61). Conclusion: the RIPL scale validated in this study has adequate reliability and validity for the dimensions Teamwork and collaboration and Patient Centered Work. Elaboration of new items are required for Professional Identity. (AU)

Educação Interprofissional no Brasil: formação e pesquisa

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 24/10/2022 - 05:53
Esta coletânea é uma obra de muitas mãos e muitas referências! Seus 22 capítulos, foram organizados em 3 partes, a saber: Aproximações Conceituais; Educação Interprofissional em Saúde como estratégia de formação e prática; e Avaliação em Educação Interprofissional em saúde. Com a obra, busca-se retratar parte das experiências e das pesquisas produzidas no Instituto Saúde e Sociedade do Campus Baixada Santista da Universidade Federal de São Paulo (Unifesp/BS), no Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas em Educação Interprofissional em Saúde (GPEIS), nos Programas de Pós-Graduação Interdisciplinar em Ciências da Saúde (níveis Mestrado e Doutorado) e no de Ensino em Ciências da Saúde (nível Mestrado Profissional). Através da obra expressamos o compromisso com a qualidade da formação profissional e com o sistema de saúde público e universal, assim como esperamos estar colaborando com o avanço do conhecimento sobre a formação interprofissional no país.

Disparities in Accessing Sexual and Reproductive Health Services and Rights Among Adolescents and Young People During COVID-19 Pandemic: Culture, Economic, and Gender Perspectives

Abstract Purpose of Review

As the world grapples with the health systems’ challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, addressing the needs of the already vulnerable adolescents and young people is vital. This narrative synthesis is aimed to highlight the current gender, cultural, and socioeconomic dynamics fueling inequalities to accessing sexual, reproductive health and rights (SRHR) services among adolescents and young people in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

Recent Findings

The COVID-19 pandemic has in most countries exacerbated already existing inequalities due to economic, gender, cultural, and legal aspects. Strategies implemented by most governments to mitigate the spread of the virus have also had a negative impact on the access to SRHR services, some of which are long term. Few published studies have assessed the extent to which the pandemic has fueled each of these paradigms regarding access to SRHR, especially among adolescents and young people (AYP). Additionally, there is paucity in data on the same in most countries, as the systems to track such effects were not available at the inception of the pandemic.

Summary

Despite efforts to mitigate the effects of the pandemic on this population, deficits remain and a multi-stakeholder approach is needed to achieve the intended goals, especially where cultural and gender values are deeply rooted. Further research is needed to quantify how the pandemic has fueled economic, gender, and cultural aspects to influence access to SRHR services among AYP especially in LMIC.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Human resource needs and costs for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis provision in nurse-led primary care in Eswatini and opportunities for task sharing

Abstract Background

The global expansion of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) includes health systems that face a shortage of skilled health care workers (HCWs). We estimated the human resource needs and costs for providing PrEP in nurse-led primary care clinics in Eswatini. Furthermore, we assessed potential cost savings from task sharing between nurses and other HCW cadres.

Methods

We conducted a time-and-motion and costing study in a PrEP demonstration project between August 2017 and January 2019. A form for recording time and performed activities (“motion”) was filled by HCWs of six primary care clinics. To estimate the human resource needs for specific PrEP activities, we allocated recorded times to performed PrEP activities using linear regression with and without adjusting for a workflow interruption, that is, if a client was seen by different HCWs or by the same HCW at different times. We assessed a base case in which a nurse provides all PrEP activities and five task shifting scenarios, of which four include workflow interruptions due to task sharing between different HCW cadres.

Results

On average, PrEP initiation required 29 min (95% CI 25–32) of HCW time and PrEP follow-up 16 min (95% CI 14–18). The HCW time cost $4.55 (uncertainty interval [UI] 1.52–9.69) for PrEP initiation and $2.54 (UI 1.07–4.64) for PrEP follow-up when all activities were performed by a nurse. Time costs were $2.30–4.25 (UI 0.62–9.19) for PrEP initiation and $1.06–2.60 (UI 0.30–5.44) for PrEP follow-up when nurses shared tasks with HCWs from lower cadres. Interruptions of the workflow added, on average, 3.4 min (95% CI 0.69–6.0) to the time HCWs needed for a given number of PrEP activities. The cost of an interrupted workflow was estimated at $0.048–0.87 (UI 0.0098–1.63) depending on whose time need increased.

Conclusions

A global shortage of skilled HCWs could slow the expansion of PrEP. Task shifting to lower-cadre HCW in nurse-led PrEP provision can free up nurse time and reduce the cost of PrEP provision even if interruptions associated with task sharing increase the overall human resource need.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Scaling severe acute malnutrition treatment with community health workers: a geospatial coverage analysis in rural Mali

Abstract Background

In 2015, the Ministry of Health in Mali included the treatment of severe acute malnutrition (SAM) into the package of activities of the integrated Community Case Management (iCCM). This paper aims to analyze the impact of including community health workers (CHWs) as treatment providers outside the Health Facilities (HFs) on the coverage of SAM treatment when scaling up the intervention in the three largest districts of the Kayes Region in Mali.

Methods

A baseline coverage assessment was conducted in August 2017 in the three districts before the CHWs started treating SAM. The end-line assessment was conducted one year later, in August 2018. Coverage was assessed by the standardized methodology called Semi-Quantitative Evaluation of Access and Coverage (SQUEAC). The primary outcome was treatment coverage and other variables evaluated were the geographical distribution of the HFs, CHW’s sites and overlapping between both health providers, the estimation of children with geographical access to health care and the estimation of children screened for acute malnutrition in their communities.

Results

Treatment coverage increased in Kayes (28.7–57.1%) and Bafoulabé (20.4–61.1%) but did not in Kita (28.4–28.5%). The decentralization of treatment has not had the same impact on coverage in all districts, with significant differences. The geospatial analyses showed that Kita had a high proportion of overlap between HFs and/or CHWs 48.7% (39.2–58.2), a high proportion of children without geographical access to health care 70.4% (70.1–70.6), and a high proportion of children not screened for SAM in their communities 52.2% (51.9–52.5).

Conclusions

Working with CHWs in SAM increases treatment coverage, but other critical aspects need to be considered by policymakers if this intervention model is intended to be scaled up at the country level. To improve families’ access to nutritional health care, before establishing decentralized treatment in a whole region it must be considered the geographical location of CHWs. This previous assessment will avoid overlap among health providers and ensure the coverage of all unserved areas according to their population densities need.

Trial registration: ISRCTN registry with ID 1990746. https://doi.org/10.1186/ISRCTN14990746

Categorías: Investigaciones

Fiscal autonomy of subnational governments and equity in healthcare resource allocation: Evidence from China.

Objectives: Promoting equity in healthcare resource allocation (EHRA) has become a critical political agenda of governments at all levels since the ambitious Universal Health Coverage was launched in China in 2009, while the role of an important institutional variable-fiscal autonomy of subnational governments-is often overlooked. The present study was designed to determine the effect of FASG on EHRA and its potential mechanism of action and heterogeneity characteristics to provide empirical support for the research field expansion and relative policies making of EHRA. Methods: From the start, we utilized the Theil index and the entropy method to calculate the EHRA index of 22 provinces (2011-2020) based on the medical resource data of 287 prefecture-level cities. Furthermore, we used the two-way fixed effects model (FE) to identify and analyze the impact of FASG on EHRA and then used three robustness test strategies and two-stage least squares (2SLS) regression to verify the reliability of the conclusions and deal with potential endogeneity problems, respectively. At last, we extend the baseline regression model and obtain the two-way FE threshold model for conducting heterogeneity analysis, which makes us verify whether the baseline model has nonlinear characteristics. Results: The static value and the trend of interannual changes in the EHRA values in different provinces are both very different. The regression results of the two-way FE model show that FASG has a significant positive impact on EHRA, and the corresponding estimated coefficient is - 0.0849 (P < 0.01). Moreover, this promotion effect can be reflected through two channels: enhancing the intensity of government health expenditure (IGHE) and optimizing the allocation of human resources for health (AHRH). At last, under the different economic and demographic constraints, the impact of FASG on EHRA has nonlinear characteristics, i.e., after crossing a specific threshold of per capita DGP (PGDP) and population density (PD), the promotion effect is reduced until it is not statistically significant, while after crossing a particular threshold of dependency ratio (DR), the promotion effect is further strengthened and still statistically significant. Conclusions: FASG plays an essential role in promoting EHRA, which shows that subnational governments need to attach great importance to the construction of fiscal capability in the allocation of health care resources, effectively improve the equity of medical and health fiscal expenditures, and promote the sustainable improvement of the level of EHRA.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Análisis psicométrico y validez de la Escala de Disposición al Aprendizaje Interprofesional en estudiantes de enfermería en Chile

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 17/10/2022 - 05:47
Introducción: La educación interprofesional ofrece a los estudiantes de salud una oportunidad para aprender, practicar y mejorar las habilidades de comunicación y colaboración a través de la experiencia de aprendizaje con otras profesiones. Es importante determinar la disposición que tienen de involucrarse activamente con otros estudiantes en su proceso de aprendizaje, lo que se evalúa a través de la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional, una de las más usadas internacionalmente. El objetivo fue adaptar y validar al español la Escala de disposición al aprendizaje interprofesional (RIPLS) en estudiantes de enfermería.Método: Diseño de estudio cuantitativo transversal, a una muestra de 330 estudiantes de enfermería de diferentes años, se realizó Alfa de Cronbach y análisis factorial exploratorio y confirmatorio.Resultados: La escala original tenía 23 ítems, solo 16 cumplen con los criterios de validez y confiabilidad. Los 16 ítems, se distribuyen en las dimensiones: Colaboración y trabajo en equipo (CyTE: 10 ítems), Trabajo centrado en el paciente (PC: 4 ítems) y Sentido e Identidad Profesional (PI: 2 ítems). El índice alfa de Cronbach de la escala completa fue de 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61).Conclusión: La escala RIPL validada en este estudio tiene confiabilidad y validez adecuada para las dimensiones Trabajo en equipo y colaboración y Trabajo centrado en el paciente. Se requiere elaborar nuevos ítems para Sentido e Identidad profesional. (AU) Introduction: Interprofessional education offers health students an opportunity to learn, practice, and improve communication and collaboration skills through learning experiences with other professions. It is important to determine their willingness to actively engage with other students in their learning process, which is assessed through the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning scale, one of the most widely used internationally. The objective was to adapt and validate the Readiness for Interprofessional Learning Scale to Spanish among nursing students. Method: The study design was cross-sectional quantitative, with a sample of 330 nursing students of different years. Cronbach's Alpha and exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis were performed. Results: The original scale had 23 items, only 16 met the validity and reliability criteria. The 16 items are distributed in the dimensions: Teamwork and collaboration (T: 10 items), Patient Centered Work(EP: 4 items) and Professional identity (PI: 2 items). Cronbach's alpha index for the full scale was 0.8259 (CyTE α=0.81; PC α= 0.77 and PI α=0.61). Conclusion: the RIPL scale validated in this study has adequate reliability and validity for the dimensions Teamwork and collaboration and Patient Centered Work. Elaboration of new items are required for Professional Identity. (AU)

Building a theoretical model for virtual interprofessional education.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 17/10/2022 - 05:47
BACKGROUND: Virtual interprofessional education (IPE) has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional in-person IPE. However, theoretical frameworks to support virtual interprofessional learning are not well established. Two theoretical frameworks emerged as relevant to virtual IPE: (1) the Canadian Interprofessional Health Collaborative (CIHC) interprofessional learning framework and (2) Dornan's Experience-Based Learning Model (ExBL) of workplace learning. In this study, we sought to explore virtual IPE using both frameworks to develop new theoretical understandings and identify assumptions, gaps and barriers. METHODS: This was a qualitative study. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with medical and nursing student participants (n = 14) and facilitators (n = 3) from virtual IPE workshops. Transcripts were analysed using directed content analysis methodology, informed by the CIHC and ExBL frameworks. Themes were explored using mind-mapping transitional coding. Data collection and analysis were continued iteratively until themes with adequate conceptual depth, relevance and plausibility were identified. RESULTS: Three themes were identified: (1) a shift in the balance of personal and professional, (2) blunted sociologic fidelity and (3) uncertainty and threats to interpersonal connections. Professional distinctions and hierarchies are blurred virtually. This contributed to an increased sense of psychological safety among most learners and lowered the threshold for participation. Separation from workplace sociologic complexity facilitated communication and role clarification objectives. However, loss of immersion may limit deeper engagement. Interprofessional objectives that rely on deeper sociological fidelity, such as conflict resolution, may be threatened. Informal interactions between learners are hindered, which may threaten organic development of interprofessional relationships. CONCLUSIONS: Role clarification and communication objectives are preserved in virtual IPE. Educators should pay close attention to psychological safety and sociologic fidelity-both to leverage advantages and guard against threats to connection and transferability. Virtual IPE may be well suited as a primer to in-person activities or as scaffolding towards interprofessional workplace practice.

Improved Self-Assessed Collaboration Through Interprofessional Education: Midwifery Students and Obstetrics and Gynecology Residents Learning Together.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 17/10/2022 - 05:47
INTRODUCTION: Research suggests that interprofessional education, bringing learners together to learn about, with, and from each other, improves health professions education and can improve health outcomes. Little research has measured outcomes of interprofessional education between midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents. The purpose of this study was to examine self-assessed interprofessional and collaborative competencies among midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents. METHODS: Baseline self-assessed interprofessional and collaborative competencies were compared with follow-up measurements to evaluate learners' experiences over an 11-month study period. Participants were midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents who experienced interprofessional learning activities. The Interprofessional Education Collaborative Competency Self-Assessment Survey (IPEC Survey) and Interprofessional Collaborative Competency Attainment Survey (ICCAS) were used. RESULTS: Of 256 learners at 4 demonstration sites, 223 (87%) completed the baseline, and 121 of 237 eligible learners (51%) completed the follow-up surveys. The IPEC Survey total score (t = 2.31, P = .02) and interaction subscale (t = 2.85, P = .005) and ICCAS score (t = 4.04, P = .001) increased for midwifery students but not obstetrics and gynecology residents on the IPEC Survey (t = 0.32, P = .75) and ICCAS (t = -0.05, P = .96) measures. Midwifery students (87%) and residents (57%) reported improved overall ability to collaborate. Learners responding to 3 open-ended questions valued team-based experiences, including learning how to communicate with each other; appreciated learning each other's education and scope of practice; and recommended skills development including uncommon clinical events, case discussions, and direct clinical care. DISCUSSION: This study advanced knowledge about interprofessional education between midwifery students and obstetrics and gynecology residents. Midwifery students improved in self-assessed interprofessional and collaborative competencies. Most learners reported better interprofessional collaboration skills and were positive about future interprofessional learning. This evaluation approach is available for other programs implementing or extending interprofessional education.

Informing investment in health workforce in Bangladesh: a health labour market analysis.

BACKGROUND: As the 2016 Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 (GSHRH) outlines, health systems can only function with health workforce (HWF). Bangladesh is committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) hence a comprehensive understanding of the existing HWF was deemed necessary informing policy and funding decisions to the health system. METHODS: The health labour market analysis (HLMA) framework for UHC cited in the GSHRH was adopted to analyse the supply, need and demand of all health workers in Bangladesh. Government's information systems provided data to document the public sector HWF. A national-level assessment (2019) based on a country representative sample of 133 geographical units, served to estimate the composition and distribution of the private sector HWF. Descriptive statistics served to characterize the formal and informal HWF. RESULTS: The density of doctors, nurses and midwives in Bangladesh was only 9.9 per 10 000 population, well below the indicative sustainable development goals index threshold of 44.5 outlined in the GSHRH. Considering all HWFs in Bangladesh, the estimated total density was 49 per 10 000 population. However, one-third of all HWFs did not hold recognized roles and their competencies were unknown, taking only qualified and recognized HWFs into account results in an estimated density 33.2. With an estimate 75 nurses per 100 doctors in Bangladesh, the second area, where policy attention appears to be warranted is on the competencies and skill-mix. Thirdly, an estimated 82% of all HWFs work in the private sector necessitates adequate oversight for patient safety. Finally, a high proportion of unfilled positions in the public sector, especially in rural areas where 67% of the population lives, account only 11% of doctors and nurses. CONCLUSION: Bangladesh is making progress on many of the milestones of the GSHRH, notably, the establishment of the HWF unit and reporting through the national health workforce accounts. However, particular investment on strengthening the intersectoral HWF coordination across sectors; regulation for assurance of patient safety and adequate oversight of the private sector; establishing accreditation mechanisms for training institutions; and halving inequalities in access to a qualified HWF are important towards advancing UHC in Bangladesh.
Categorías: Investigaciones

National IoMT platform strategy portfolio decision model under the COVID-19 environment: based on the financial and non-financial value view

Abstract

The Internet of Medical Things (IoMT) is an emerging technology in the healthcare revolution which provides real-time healthcare information communication and reasonable medical resource allocation. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a significant effect on people’s lives and has affected healthcare capacities. It is important for integrated IoMT platform development to overcome the global pandemic challenges. This study proposed the national IoMT platform strategy portfolio decision-making model from the non-financial (technology, organization, environment) and financial perspectives. As a solution to the decision problem, initially, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) technology were employed to capture the cause-effect relationship based on the perspectives and criteria obtained from the insight of an expert team. The analytic network process (ANP) and pairwise comparisons were then used to determine the weights for the strategy. Simultaneously, this study incorporated IoMT platform resource limitations into the zero–one goal programming (ZOGP) method to obtain an optimal portfolio selection for IoMT platform strategy planning. The results showed that the integrated MCDM method produced reasonable results for selecting the most appropriate IoMT platform strategy portfolio when considering resource constraints such as system installation costs, consultant fees, infrastructure costs, reduction of medical staff demand, and improvement rates for diagnosis efficiency. The decision-making model of the IoMT platform in this study was conclusive and significantly compelling to aid government decision makers in concentrating their efforts on planning IoMT strategies in response to various pandemic and medical resource allocations.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Health services supervision in a protracted crisis: a qualitative study into supportive supervision practices in South Sudan

Abstract Background

The health system in South Sudan faces extreme domestic resource constraints, low capacity, and protracted humanitarian crises. Supportive supervision is believed to improve the quality of health care and service delivery by compensating for flaws in health workforce management. This study aimed to explore the current supervision practices in South Sudan and identify areas for quality improvement.

Methods

The study employed qualitative approaches to collect and analyse data from six purposefully selected counties. Data were collected from 194 participants using semi-structured interviews (43 health managers) and focus group discussions (151 health workers). Thematic content analysis was used to yield an in-depth understanding of the supervision practices in the health sector.

Results

The study found that integrated supportive supervision and monitoring visits were the main approaches used for health services supervision in South Sudan. Supportive supervision focused more on health system administration and less on clinical matters. Although fragmented, supportive supervision was carried out quarterly, while monitoring visits were either conducted monthly or ad hoc. Prioritization for supportive supervision was mainly data driven. Paper-based checklists were the most commonly used supervision tools. Many supervisors had no formal training on supportive supervision and only learned on the job. The health workers received on-site verbal feedback and, most times, on-the-job training sessions through coaching and mentorship. Action plans developed during supervision were inadequately followed up due to insufficient funding. Insecurity, poor road networks, lack of competent health managers, poor coordination, and lack of adequate means of transport were some of the challenges experienced during supervision. The presumed outcomes of supportive supervision were improvements in human resource management, drug management, health data reporting, teamwork, and staff respect for one another.

Conclusion

Supportive supervision remains a daunting task in the South Sudan health sector due to a combination of external and health system factors. Our study findings suggest that strengthening the processes and providing inputs for supervision should be prioritized if quality improvement is to be attained. This necessitates stronger stewardship from the Ministry of Health, integration of different supervision practices, investment in the capacity of the health workforce, and health infrastructure development.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The global inequity in COVID-19 vaccination coverage among health and care workers

Abstract Background

Health and care workers (HCWs) are at the forefront of COVID-19 response, at high risk of infection, and as a result they are a priority group for COVID-19 vaccination. This paper presents the global patterns in COVID-19 vaccination coverage among HCWs in 2021, how HCWs were prioritized, and identifies factors associated with the early vaccination coverage.

Methods

Using monthly data reported to the World Health Organization, the percentages of partially and fully vaccinated HCWs were computed. The rates of vaccination of HCWs for the first and second half of 2021 were compared in a stratified analysis using several factors. A multivariate analysis was used to investigate the independent associations of these factors with the percentage of HCWs fully vaccinated.

Results

Based on data from 139 Member States, as of end of 2021, 82% HCWs were reported as fully vaccinated with important variations by income groups: 33% for low income countries, 83% for lower-middle income countries, 79% for upper-middle income countries and 88% for high income countries. Overall 76% of countries did not achieve 70% vaccination coverage of their HCWs in the first half of 2021, and 38% of countries by end of 2021. Compared with the general population, the rate of HCWs full vaccination was 3.5 times higher, in particular for low income countries (RR = 5.9). Stratified analysis showed that beyond income group, the availability of vaccine doses was a critical factor of HCWs vaccination coverage with medians of 59.1% and 88.6% coverage in the first and second half of 2021, respectively for countries with enough doses to cover 70% of their population, compared with 0.8% and 47.5% coverage, respectively for countries with doses to cover 40% of their population. The multivariate analysis confirmed this observation with a 35.9% overall difference (95%CI 15.1%; 56.9%) between these two groups.

Conclusion

Despite being considered a priority group, more than a third of countries did not achieve 70% vaccination coverage of their HCWs at the end of 2021. Large inequities were observed with low income countries lagging behind. Additional efforts should be dedicated to ensure full protection of HCWs through vaccination.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Informing investment in health workforce in Bangladesh: a health labour market analysis

Abstract Background

As the 2016 Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 (GSHRH) outlines, health systems can only function with health workforce (HWF). Bangladesh is committed to achieving universal health coverage (UHC) hence a comprehensive understanding of the existing HWF was deemed necessary informing policy and funding decisions to the health system.

Methods

The health labour market analysis (HLMA) framework for UHC cited in the GSHRH was adopted to analyse the supply, need and demand of all health workers in Bangladesh. Government’s information systems provided data to document the public sector HWF. A national-level assessment (2019) based on a country representative sample of 133 geographical units, served to estimate the composition and distribution of the private sector HWF. Descriptive statistics served to characterize the formal and informal HWF.

Results

The density of doctors, nurses and midwives in Bangladesh was only 9.9 per 10 000 population, well below the indicative sustainable development goals index threshold of 44.5 outlined in the GSHRH. Considering all HWFs in Bangladesh, the estimated total density was 49 per 10 000 population. However, one-third of all HWFs did not hold recognized roles and their competencies were unknown, taking only qualified and recognized HWFs into account results in an estimated density 33.2. With an estimate 75 nurses per 100 doctors in Bangladesh, the second area, where policy attention appears to be warranted is on the competencies and skill-mix. Thirdly, an estimated 82% of all HWFs work in the private sector necessitates adequate oversight for patient safety. Finally, a high proportion of unfilled positions in the public sector, especially in rural areas where 67% of the population lives, account only 11% of doctors and nurses.

Conclusion

Bangladesh is making progress on many of the milestones of the GSHRH, notably, the establishment of the HWF unit and reporting through the national health workforce accounts. However, particular investment on strengthening the intersectoral HWF coordination across sectors; regulation for assurance of patient safety and adequate oversight of the private sector; establishing accreditation mechanisms for training institutions; and halving inequalities in access to a qualified HWF are important towards advancing UHC in Bangladesh.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Nurses’ steps, distance traveled, and perceived physical demands in a three-shift schedule

Abstract Background

The physical job demands of hospital nurses are known to be very high. Although many studies have measured the physical activities of nurses subjectively using questionnaires, it remains necessary to quantify and measure nurses’ physical activity at work using objective indicators. This study was conducted to address this gap in the literature by analyzing nurses’ physical activity using both objective measurements and subjective perceptions. The number of steps, distance traveled, and actual work hours were measured during work, and the influence of related factors was analyzed.

Methods

Using a cross-sectional design, survey and activity tracking data were collected from nurses who worked in three shifts in two tertiary hospitals located in the capital region of South Korea. The participants comprised 117 nurses working in four different units (medical ward, surgical ward, intensive care unit, emergency room), and data from 351 shifts were used in the final analysis. Between-group differences in the main variables were analyzed using the t-test, the Mann–Whitney test, analysis of variance, or the Kruskal–Wallis test, as appropriate. The relationships were examined through multiple linear regression analysis.

Results

The average number of steps and distance traveled were greatest for nurses working in the emergency room, followed by the intensive care unit, surgical ward, and medical ward (in descending order). Younger nurses and those with shorter unit experience tended to have the greatest number of steps and distance traveled.

Conclusion

Using activity trackers, this study derived physical activity measures such as number of steps and distance traveled, enabling an objective examination of physical activity during shifts. Nurses’ level of physical activity differed depending on the type of nursing unit, nurses’ age, and unit experience. These results suggest the need for support programs that are specific to the job demands of specific nursing units.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Considerations for Faculty and Presenters in Interprofessional Continuing Education.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 07/10/2022 - 05:36
Interprofessional (IP) continuing education (IPCE) has evolved to focus on team performance and a commitment to education delivery that enables team members to learn from, with, and about each other. Evidence shows substantial benefits from IPCE that improve team-work, care delivery, and patient outcomes. Continuing professional development and IPCE faculty and presenters play a key role in IPCE and must understand the tenets of IPCE and how to facilitate the learning of an IP team. This column will focus on the role of faculty and presenters in IPCE activities to enhance effective collaboration and improve health outcomes. [J Contin Educ Nurs. 2022;53(10):432-435.].

Is interprofessional education a valued contributor to interprofessional practice and collaboration within allied health in Australia and New Zealand: A scoping review.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 07/10/2022 - 05:36
Research on the value of interprofessional education (IPE), collaboration and practice in the health sector at both a pre- and post-registration level has increased in recent years. A scoping review of Australian and New Zealand studies was conducted on the value of IPE to interprofessional practice in allied health professionals from 2013 to 2019. A scoping review framework was used to identify 109 studies. Twenty-one articles met the eligibility criteria. The studies were grouped into undergraduate students in academic and WIL settings, allied health professionals and clinical educators. Results suggest that IPE is necessary for the maintenance of interprofessional practice and that it is strongly connected to the development of successful communication within the interprofessional environment. Authentic IPE experience and socialization opportunities appear to be major facilitators of interprofessional practice but no consensus regarding the ideal length of time or timing of IPE was found. The studies also provided an insight into facilitators and barriers to successful implementation of IPE and interprofessional practice in rural environments. As IPE has been shown to contribute to improved interprofessional practice and patient outcomes, future research should explore how to create IPE opportunities for implementation within rural communities where adequate resourcing is most challenged.

Evaluating the effects of supplementing ward nurses on quality of newborn care in Kenyan neonatal units: protocol for a prospective workforce intervention study.

BACKGROUND: Data from High Income Countries have now linked low nurse staff to patient ratios to poor quality patient care. Adequately staffing hospitals is however still a challenge in resource-constrained Low-middle income countries (LMICs) and poor staff-to-patient ratios are largely taken as a norm. This in part relates to limited evidence on the relationship between staffing and quality of patient care in these settings and also an absence of research on benefits that might occur from improving hospital staff numbers in LMICs. This study will determine the effect on the quality of patient care of prospectively adding extra nursing staff to newborn units in a resource constrained LMIC setting and describe the relationship between staffing and quality of care. METHODS: This prospective workforce intervention study will involve a multi-method approach. We will conduct a before and after study in newborn units of 4 intervention hospitals and a single time-point comparison in 4 non-intervention hospitals to determine if there is a change in the level of missed nursing care, a process measure of the quality of patient care. We will also determine the effect of our intervention on routinely collected quality indicators using interrupted time series analysis. Using three nurse staffing metrics (Total nursing hours, nursing hours per patient day and nursing hours per patient per shift), we will describe the relationship between staffing and the quality of patient care. DISCUSSION: There is an urgent need for the implementation of staffing policies in resource constrained LMICs that are guided by relevant contextual data. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the prospective addition of nursing staff in resource-constrained care settings. Our findings are likely to provide the much-needed evidence for better staffing in these settings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study was retrospectively registered in the Pan African Clinical Trial Registry ( https://pactr.samrc.ac.za/Default.aspx?Logout=True ) database on the 10th of June 2022 with a unique identification number-PACTR202206477083141.
Categorías: Investigaciones

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