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Patient medication counselling (PMC) is a pharmaceutical care service targeted at optimizing patient drug use, safety and improving treatment outcomes. This study assessed the content and quality of PMC from the community pharmacists’ (CPs) and pharmacy customers’ (PCs) perspectives.Methods
A cross-sectional questionnaire-guided survey was conducted in Ibadan, Nigeria, among 125 CPs and 612 PCs. The 35-counselling items validated United States Pharmacopeia Medication Counselling Behaviour Guideline scale with 10-point graded responses (1 = poor to 10 = excellent) was used. Self-reported medication counselling information content provided by CPs and received by PCs was assessed and expressed in median and interquartile ranges. The quality of PMC was evaluated and graded as poor (1–29.9%), unsatisfactory (30–59.9%), satisfactory (60–79.9%) and excellent (80–100%). Associations between demographic variables and overall quality of counselling were determined with Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests at p < 0.05.Results
The response rate was 92.5% and 97.6% for PCs and CPs, respectively. The PCs’ opinions on the individual content of the PMC provided by the CPs were significantly different from the pharmacists’ self-report (p < 0.05). Some of the PMC content included how to take the medicine PC = 6.00 (2.00) vs CP = 8.00 (2.00), information on possible side effects PC = 6.00 (2.00) vs CP = 8.00 (2.00), taking history of allergies and other medications PC = 6.00 (6.00) vs CP = 7.00 (1.00), and how to incorporate drug regimen into daily routine PC = 5.00 (6.00) vs CP = 8.00 (3.00). The quality of PMC purportedly provided by CPs and received by the PCs was satisfactory (75%) and unsatisfactory (55%), respectively. The quality of communication counselling offered by CPs trained in Nigeria (Mean rank = 62.49) was higher than those trained outside Nigeria (Mean rank = 26.40), U = 228.00, p = 0.024. The PC’s age, marital status, and highest educational qualification were significantly associated with their opinion on the quality of counselling received.Conclusions
Both the community pharmacists and pharmacy customers reported the provision of patient medication counselling on side effects, drug usage, medication history and allergies among others. However, the quality of counselling provided by the pharmacists was satisfactory, but the quality of counselling received by the pharmacy customers was unsatisfactory. Pharmacists may need to engage pharmacy customers more during medication counselling.
Perfil de competencias esenciales que orientan la formación de los profesionales de la salud. Documento técnico. Segunda fase: Químico(a), farmacéutico(a) psicólogo(a), nutricionista (a) y cirujano (a), dentista peruano (a)
Observed and personally experienced discrimination: findings of a cross-sectional survey of physicians and nursing staff
Discrimination against hospital staff based on ascribed features is prevalent in healthcare systems worldwide. Detrimental effects on health and quality of patient care have been shown. Our study aims to describe and analyse the discrimination experiences of both physicians and nurses, specifically for the German hospital context.Methods
A cross-sectional online survey on observed and personally experienced discrimination at work addressed staff from 22 hospitals of two organizations in Germany. Sociodemographic and occupational as well as institutional characteristics served as independent variables. In multivariable analyses, block- and stepwise logistic regressions were calculated for the two dependent variables (witness and victim of discrimination). Sensitivity analyses with imputed data for missings were performed.Results
N = 800 healthcare professionals (n = 243 physicians, n = 557 nurses; response rate: 5.9%) participated in the survey. 305 respondents (38.1%) were witnesses of discrimination, while 108 respondents (13.5%) were victims of discrimination in their wards. Reasons for observed discriminatory acts were predominantly attributed to the ethnicity of the person concerned, their appearance and language, whereas personally affected staff most frequently cited gender as a reason, followed by ethnicity, and physical appearance. In multivariable models, cultural competence significantly increased the likelihood of witnessing discrimination (β = .575; p = .037). In terms of the likelihood of being a victim of discrimination, in addition to cultural competence (β = 2.838; p = < .001), the interaction of the effects of gender and professional group was statistically significant (β = .280; p = .010).Conclusions
Given the extent of experienced and observed discrimination, appropriate institutional responses are needed. Further research on discriminatory structures in the German-speaking health care system should focus on discrimination at the intersection of ethnicity, gender and occupation.
Online learning for continuous professional development of healthcare workers: an exploratory study on perceptions of healthcare managers in Rwanda
Due to outbreaks of new diseases, development of new treatment regimens and requirement of evidence-based practice, health professionals continuously need to acquire updated knowledge and skills. This type of learning is known as continuous professional development (CPD). The scarcity of skilled health care professionals in developing countries further increases the need of CPD. Traditionally, face-to-face approach has been preferred as the best mode of CPD. Currently, health professionals have started using online learning for continued professional growth in different parts of the world. Consequently, research studies from different settings are needed to investigate the significance of online learning for CPD. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the importance and challenges attributed to online learning by the managers of health facilities in Rwanda. Moreover, the study aimed to identify the status of infrastructures that could support online CPD, and assess the perceived enhancement and barriers for implementing online CPD.Methods
The study used a convergence mixed-method design to explore quantitative and qualitative data from 42 health care managers. A descriptive analysis was conducted on quantitative data while qualitative data were thematically analyzed to inform the study findings.Results
It was revealed that 90.5% of managers, who participated in this study, consider positively the use of online learning for CPD. All managers acknowledged that online learning could improve the knowledge and practice skills of health care professionals. Nevertheless, 52.4% of health institutions who participated in this study currently do not use online for CPD. Participants demonstrated challenges such as the lack of access to digital devices, poor or lack of internet access, poor online learning design, low digital skills of healthcare professionals, lack of time dedicated to online learning, and heavy workload of staff.Conclusion
These findings indicate then that the managers of health institutions value the importance of online learning for CPD of health professionals. However, online learning should be designed to fit for the purpose and with a high consideration on needs and preferences of healthcare professionals and thereby improve information communication technology infrastructure that support online learning for CPD. Traditional in-person CPD courses are still recommended in health institutions with shortage in resources and technology. Also, the barriers of online CPD delivery such as low internet connectivity and lack of access to digital devices by healthcare professionals need to be co-creatively addressed through the pyramidal structure of the Rwandan health system.
In Uganda, low resources for mental health provision combine with disadvantage and inadequate supports for family and community-based care. Catalysed by the need to reduce overcrowded psychiatric hospital wards and frequent readmissions at Butabika National Referral Mental Hospital (BNRMH) in Kampala, the nongovernment organisation YouBelong Uganda (YBU) developed the YouBelong Home (YBH) intervention. YBH is a theoretically eclectic pre and post hospital discharge intervention. This paper reports on qualitative findings of the project Curtailing Hospital Readmissions for Patients with Severe Mental Illness in Africa (CHaRISMA), which explored how to refine the YBH intervention. The project was funded by a UK Joint Global Health Trials (JGHT) Development Grant. Data was collected through structured interviews with service users and caregivers, reflective practice by the YBH implementing team and a stakeholder focus group. A summary of refinements to the YBH intervention follows the TIDieR format (Template for Intervention Description and Replication).
To compile key strategies from the international experiences to improve access to primary healthcare (PHC) services in rural communities. Different innovative approaches have been practiced in different parts of the world to improve access to essential healthcare services in rural communities. Systematically collecting and combining best experiences all over the world is important to suggest effective strategies to improve access to healthcare in developing countries. Accordingly, this systematic review of literature was undertaken to identify key approaches from international experiences to enhance access to PHC services in rural communities.Methods
All published and unpublished qualitative and/or mixed method studies conducted to improvement access to PHC services were searched from MEDLINE, Scopus, Web of Science, WHO Global Health Library, and Google Scholar. Articles published other than English language, citations with no abstracts and/or full texts, and duplicate studies were excluded. We included all articles available in different electronic databases regardless of their publication years. We assessed the methodological quality of the included studies using mixed methods appraisal tool (MMAT) version 2018 to minimize the risk of bias. Data were extracted using JBI mixed methods data extraction form. Data were qualitatively analyzed using emergent thematic analysis approach to identify key concepts and coded them into related non-mutually exclusive themes.Results
Our analysis of 110 full-text articles resulted in ten key strategies to improve access to PHC services. Community health programs or community-directed interventions, school-based healthcare services, student-led healthcare services, outreach services or mobile clinics, family health program, empanelment, community health funding schemes, telemedicine, working with traditional healers, working with non-profit private sectors and non-governmental organizations including faith-based organizations are the key strategies identified from international experiences.Conclusion
This review identified key strategies from international experiences to improve access to PHC services in rural communities. These strategies can play roles in achieving universal health coverage and reducing disparities in health outcomes among rural communities and enabling them to get healthcare when and where they want.
Estimating Chinese bilateral aid for health: an analysis of AidData's Global Chinese Official Finance Dataset Version 2.0.
Autonomous motivation predicts students' engagement and disaffection in interprofessional education: Scale adaptation and application.
Over the years, the Nigerian healthcare workforce, including doctors, nurses, and pharmacists have always been known to emigrate to developed countries to practice. However, the recent dramatic increase in this trend is worrisome. There has been a mass emigration of Nigerian healthcare workers to developed countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. While the push factors have been found to include the inadequate provision of personal protective equipment, low monthly hazard allowance, and inconsistent payment of COVID-19 inducement allowance on top of worsening insecurity, the pull factors are higher salaries as well as a safe and healthy working environment. We also discuss how healthcare workers can be retained in Nigeria through increment in remunerations and prompt payment of allowances, and how the brain drain can be turned into a brain gain via the use of electronic data collection tools for Nigerian health workers abroad, implementation of the Bhagwati’s tax system, and establishment of a global skill partnership with developed countries.Graphical Abstract
Impact assessment of the medical practice assisting (MPA) program in general practice in the hunter New England and central coast regions of Australia
A regional Australian Primary Health Network (PHN) has been subsidising administrative staff from local general practices to undertake the Medical Practice Assisting (MPA) course as part of its MPA Program. The MPA Program aimed to upskill administrative staff to undertake clinical tasks and fill in for busy or absent Practice Nurses (PNs), freeing up PNs to increase revenue-generating activity, avoiding casual replacement staff wages, and increasing patient throughput. An impact assessment was undertaken to evaluate the impact and estimate the economic costs of the MPA program to the PHN, general practices, and students to inform future uptake of the intervention.Methods
The Framework to Assess the Impact of Translational Health Research (FAIT) was utilised. Originally designed to assess the impact of health research, this was its first application to a health services project. FAIT combines three validated methods of impact assessment—Payback, economic analysis and narratives underpinned by a program logic model. Quantified metrics describe the impacts of the program within various “domains of benefit”, the economic model costs the intervention and monetises potential consequences, and the narrative tells the story of the MPA Program and the difference it has made. Data were collected via online surveys from general practitioners (GPs), PNs, practice managers; MPA graduates and PHN staff were interviewed by phone and on Zoom.Results
FAIT was effective in evidencing the impacts and economic viability of the MPA Program. GPs and PNs reported greater work satisfaction, PNs reported less stress and reduced workloads and MPA graduates reported higher job satisfaction and greater confidence performing a range of clinical skills. MPA Program economic costs for general practices during candidature, and 12 month post-graduation was estimated at $69,756. With effective re-integration planning, this investment was recoverable within 12 months through increased revenue for practices. Graduates paid appropriately for their new skills also recouped their investment within 24 months.Conclusion
Utilisation of MPA graduates varied substantially between practices and COVID-19 impacted on their utilisation. More strategic reintegration of the MPA graduate back into the practice to most effectively utilise their new skillset could optimise potential benefits realised by participating practices.
Do UK Allied Health Professionals (AHPs) have sufficient guidelines and training to provide telehealth patient consultations?
The COVID-19 pandemic caused a rapid shift to remote consultations. United Kingdom (UK) NHS Allied Health Professional (AHP) services may have been unprepared for telehealth implementation. This study explored these services’ organisational readiness regarding telehealth guidelines implementation and staff training.Methods
A cross-sectional online survey exploring available telehealth guidelines and staff training was distributed among UK AHPs and AHP service managers between May and June 2021.Results
658 participants answered the survey (119 managers and 539 clinicians). Most services, in which telehealth was in place, had implemented telehealth guidelines (clinicians, 64%; managers, 82%), with most guidelines produced by the NHS staff who use them for their consultations. Most clinicians reported that guidelines had ambiguous areas (e.g., regarding protection from litigation and dealing with emergencies), whereas most managers reported the opposite opinion. Guidelines most frequently reported on appropriate telehealth technology and environment for staff and patients, while recommended consultation length and how to conduct telehealth with certain population groups were least reported. Clinicians lacked training in most telehealth aspects, while managers reported that staff training focused on telehealth software and hardware. For both clinicians and managers, training is needed on how to deal with emergencies during telehealth.Conclusions
UK NHS AHP services are not fully equipped with clear and comprehensive guidelines and the skills to deliver telehealth. Vulnerable people are excluded from current guidelines, which may widen health inequalities and hinder the success of the NHS digital transformation. The absence of national guidelines highlights the need for uniform AHP telehealth guidelines.
Group psychoeducation for persons with bipolar disorder in Rwanda: a study protocol for a randomized controlled trial
The efficacy of psychoeducation as an add-on treatment to pharmacotherapy is well documented in treating symptoms and in relapse prevention for persons with bipolar disorder in western countries. Yet, no studies on psychosocial interventions for persons with bipolar disorder have been conducted in a low-income country in Africa.Aim
To develop a bipolar group psychoeducation program contextualized to the Rwandese setting, and determine its effect on symptom severity, medical adherence, and internalized stigma.Methods
A culturally adapted guide manual was developed by local mental health professionals, including nurses, psychologists, and medical doctors. In-depth interviews with participants were held prior to and will be held following the intervention to address the cultural aspect of living with bipolar disease and the impact of the program. A two-armed randomized controlled trial has been set up at the tertiary mental health hospitals in Rwanda, with an intervention and a waiting list arm. A sample size of at least 50 in each arm was calculated as a requirement. The study’s primary outcome measure will be the difference in relapse rate measured on the Young Mania Rating Scale and Hamilton Depression Scale-17. Differences in mean change on scales for medical adherence and internalized stigma will be secondary outcomes. Data will be analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Participants will be assessed subsequently at baseline, at the end of the intervention period, and three months and 12 months post-intervention.Discussion
This study will be one of the first intervention trials on bipolar disorder in a low-income country. If proven successful in reducing morbidity and increasing the quality of life in persons with bipolar disorder, it is anticipated that the psychoeducation program can be implemented at the district and community level and act as inspiration for other low-resource settings.Trial registration
ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04671225. Registered on November 2020.
Diverse pre-service midwifery education pathways in Cambodia and Malawi: A qualitative study utilising a midwifery education pathway conceptual framework.
Interprofessional education in health professions education programmes in the Arab world: a scoping review protocol.
Framing access to essential medicines in the context of Universal Health Coverage: a critical analysis of health sector strategic plans from eight countries in the WHO African region
Framing affects how issues are understood and portrayed. This profoundly shapes the construction of social problems and how policy options are considered. While access to essential medicines (ATM) in the World Health Organization (WHO) African Region is often framed as a societal problem, there is dominance of medical and technically oriented approaches to analyze and remedy the situation. Hence, the systematic application of social science approaches, such as framing theory, remains under-explored. Through a framing analysis of National Strategic Plans (NSPs) from eight countries, this study explores the applicability and potential usefulness of framing theory to analyze essential medicines policies.Methods
We inductively coded the relevant NSP textual fragments using the qualitative content analysis software ATLAS.ti.22. Benford and Snow’s conceptualization of framing was used to organize the coded data into three frames: diagnostic (problems), prognostic (solutions) and motivational (values and ideological).Results
The following five diagnostic frames were dominant or in-frame: medicine unavailability, ineffective regulation, weak supply chain management, proliferation of counterfeit (substandard or falsified) medicines and use of poor quality medicines. Diagnostic frames related to financing, affordability, efficiency and corruption were given limited coverage or out of frame. Prognostic frames corresponded with how these problems were framed. Whilst Universal Health Coverage (UHC) and its guiding principles was the dominant motivational frame, we identified some frame discordance between the global discourse and national level policies.Conclusions
Social science approaches such as framing analysis are applicable and useful to systematically analyze essential medicine aspects. By applying framing theory, we revealed that ATM aspects in the eight countries we analyzed are more often characterized in relation to availability at the expense of affordability which undermines UHC. We conclude that whilst UHC is a strong motivational frame to guide ATM aspects, it is insufficient to inform a comprehensive approach to address the problems related to ATM at country level. To effectively advance ATM, concerned actors need to realize such limitation and endeavor to gain a deeper understanding of how problems are framed and agendas are set at country level, the processes through which ideas and knowledge become policies, including the political demands, incentives and trade-offs facing decision-makers in selecting policy priorities.
Analysis of factors influencing technical efficiency of public district hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa
District hospitals are crucial in supporting primary health care and serve as a gateway to more specialist care through a referral system. Majority of South Africans access health care services through the public sector district health system. Given the enormous task assigned to the public district hospital within the country, this study examined factors influencing their technical efficiency.Method
Data were collected for 38 public district hospitals in KwaZulu-Natal province from 2014/15 to 2016/17. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to determine the technical efficiency of the hospitals, adopting both the constant return to scale (CRS) and variable return to scale (VRS) models. Tobit regression model was used to determine factors related to the technical efficiency of the district hospitals.Results
This study showed that a significant proportion of the district hospitals were technically inefficient. The Tobit regression model identified catchment population, the proportion of inpatients treated per medical personnel, the proportion of inpatients treated per nursing personnel and expenditure per patient day equivalent as factors influencing technical efficiency of the district hospitals.Conclusion
Findings from this study suggest that the technical efficiency of the district hospitals can be enhanced through an effective referral system and improved peoples’ health-seeking behaviour. In addition, a standard mix of clinical staff toward efficient service delivery and periodic cost analysis of health services with the view to saving cost and maintaining the quality of health care should be considered.
Pattern and perception of wellbeing, quality of work life and quality of care of health professionals in Southwest Nigeria
Personal wellbeing (PW) including quality of life and work life is a very complex concept that influences health professionals’ commitment and productivity. Improving PW may result in positive outcomes and good quality of care. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the pattern and perception of wellbeing, quality of work life (QoWL) and quality of care (QoC) of health professionals (HPs) in southwest Nigeria.Methods
The study was a convergent parallel mixed method design comprising a cross-sectional survey (1580 conveniently selected participants) and a focus group interview (40 purposively selected participants). Participants’ PW, quality of life (QoL), QoWL, and QoC were assessed using the PW Index Scale, 5-item World Health Organization Well-Being Index, QoWL questionnaire, and Clinician QoC scale, respectively. The pattern of wellbeing, QoWL and quality of care of HPs were evaluated using t-test and ANOVA tests. Binary regression analysis was used to assess factors that could classify participants as having good or poor wellbeing, QoWL, and quality of care of HPs. The qualitative findings were thematically analyzed following two independent transcriptions. An inductive approach to naming themes was used. Codes were assigned to the data and common codes were grouped into categories, leading to themes and subthemes.Results
Of 1600 administered questionnaires, 1580 were returned, giving a 98.75% response rate. Only 45.3%, 43.9%, 39.8% and 38.4% of HP reported good PW, QoL, QoC and QoWL, respectively; while 54.7%, 56.1%, 60.2% and 61.6% were poor. There were significant gender differences in PW and QoC in favor of females. With an increase in age and years of practice, there was a significant increase in PW, QoWL and QoC. As the work volume increased, there was significant decrease in QoWL. Participants with master's or Ph.D. degrees reported improved QoWL while those with diploma reported better QoC. PWI and QoC were significantly different along the type of appointment, with those who held part-time appointments having the least values. The regression models showed that participant’s characteristics such as age, gender, designation, and work volume significantly classified health professionals who had good or poor QoC, QoWL, PW and QoL. The focus group interview revealed four themes and 16 sub-themes. The four themes were the definitions of QoC, QoWL, and PW, and dimensions of QoC.Conclusion
More than half of health professionals reported poor quality of work life, quality of life and personal wellbeing which were influenced by personal and work-related factors. All these may have influenced the poor quality of care reported, despite the finding of a good knowledge of what quality of care entails.
Job strain and burnout in Spanish nurses during the COVID-19: resilience as a protective factor in a cross-sectional study
Nurses are frequently exposed to chronic stress in the workplace generating harmful effects such as job strain and burnout. On the contrary, resilience has been shown to be a beneficial variable. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationship between dimensions of the Job Demand Control-Support model, resilience and burnout in nurses, and examine the mediating role of resilience between job strain and burnout.Methods
A descriptive, cross-sectional study reported in line with the STROBE guidelines. Active nurses were invited to complete an online questionnaire in September, 2020. With snowball sampling, 1013 nurses, with a mean age of 34.71, filled out the Job Content Questionnaire, the Maslach Burnout Inventory and the Resilience Scale.Results
The results showed the existence of four groups of professionals based on job strain. The nurses in the “High Strain” group (high demands and low control) showed higher scores in emotional exhaustion and cynicism, while those in the “Active Job” group scored higher in personal realization and resilience. The findings showed that job strain affects burnout in nurses, and this effect is mediated by resilience.Conclusions
The findings of this study showed that a high level of resilience could exert a fundamental role in ensuring well-being and proper job performance by nurses. Nursing managers should see to the personable variables or competencies that provide and favor an opportunity for nurses to widen and improve their practice, in pursuance of satisfying and responding better to people’s needs and the systems they work for.