Empathy, better patient care, and how interprofessional education can help.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 06/01/2023 - 04:19
Interprofessional education (IPE) has been promoted as one way to prepare healthcare students for interprofessional encounters they might experience in the workplace. However, the link between IPE, interprofessional care in the workforce, and better patient outcomes is tenuous, perhaps in part due to the inability of IPE programs to adequately address barriers associated with interprofessional care (e.g., power differentials, role disputes). Empathy, or understanding the experiences of others, has emerged as a critical tool to breaking down barriers inherent to working in teams. Given the evidence connecting empathy to stronger team collaboration and better patient care, researchers significantly revamped programming from a prior training called Interprofessional Education for Complex Neurological Cases (IPE Neuro) to enhance empathy, foster stronger team collaboration, and improve information integration among participants. In this improved three-session program, participants from seven different professions were grouped into teams, assessed a patient volunteer with neurological disorder, and created and presented an integrated, patient-centric treatment plan. Students (N = 31) were asked to report general empathy levels, as well as attitudes, team skills, and readiness toward interprofessional care, before and after the program. We conducted paired samples t-tests and thematic analysis to analyze the data. Results showed that participants reported higher empathy levels, more positive attitudes, and greater team skills pre- to posttest with moderate to large effects. Results bolster IPE Neuro programming as one approach to prepare students for interprofessional care while underscoring the potential implications of IPE to improve empathy levels of healthcare professionals.

"Opening eyes to real interprofessional education": results of a national faculty development initiative focused on interprofessional education in oncology palliative care.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 06/01/2023 - 04:19
The purpose of this study was to evaluate participants' feedback related to their experience in the Interprofessional Education Exchange (iPEX) program, a training initiative for faculty development in interprofessional oncology palliative care education. Participants voluntarily submitted a written reflection using a guide. The research team used qualitative content template analysis techniques to determine codes and categories based on the reflections and selected representative quotations (meaning units) from the data. Fifty-three reflections (100%) submitted by those completing the training were included in the analysis. The most appreciated aspects of the training were the opportunity for exchange of ideas and programs and the time allowed during the workshop for each team to work on developing their unique plan for interprofessional education (IPE) in oncology palliative care at their home institution. The iPEX program proved to be feasible, well-accepted, and valued by participants who reported personal, professional, and team growth and expressed appreciation for program support, content, and the exchange of ideas in a face-to-face setting. The results demonstrate that a faculty development program built on recommendations in the literature contributed to successful efforts to plan and initiate IPE in oncology palliative care.

Assessment of teamwork in interprofessional education.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 06/01/2023 - 04:19
The aim of this study was to offer new insight into assessments of interprofessional education (IPE) by evaluating the association between students' self-assessment for teamwork and expert assessment of simulation and team-based writing examination. We also evaluated the relationship between students' demographic factors and their teamwork skill. A total 112 of medical and pharmacology students were divided into 36 interprofessional groups and participated interprofessional patient safety session. During the session, all students answered self-assessment for teamwork (SAT) individually. Teamwork skill of the student groups were rated by simulation assessment (SA) and team-based writing examination (WX). As a result, there was a weak correlation between the score of SAT and SA and no correlation between the score of SAT and WX. Also, as a demographic analysis, medical students assessed their teamwork higher than pharmacology students, and male students assessed their teamwork higher than female students. The duration of club activities including sports and arts correlated negatively with the score of WX. From this result, student's high self-assessment for teamwork could be an indication of good team performance in simulation assessment, but not in team-based writing examination.

Nursing and medical students' experiences of interprofessional education during clinical training in psychiatry.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 06/01/2023 - 04:19
The aim of the study was to describe nursing and medical students' experiences of participation in an interprofessional education (IPE) activity, "round school," during their clinical rotations in psychiatric care. Data were collected in six focus groups with 32 students from nursing and medical programs, focusing on their experiences of the IPE activity and their reflections on interprofessional collaboration. The students considered the round school to be meaningful and true-to-life. Important conditions for learning were well-informed staff, sufficient time for preparation and feedback, clear routines, instructions, and an open climate. Non-explicit instructions and limited preunderstanding of psychiatric care left the students feeling uncertain. Students' reflections regarding interprofessional competences encompassed both similarities and differences in roles, responsibilities, and collaboration. Evidence of hierarchical and stereotypical images of the nurse-physician relationship was identified. Round school is an example of how IPE can be integrated into the units' regular ward rounds. However, if the clinical everyday work is not based on collaboration between different professions, it can be arduous to implement IPE. Well-planned preparations are necessary, both in the clinic and at the faculty.

Getting to know you: implementing an interprofessional education program for medical and respiratory therapy students in mechanical ventilation - challenges and lessons learned.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 06/01/2023 - 04:19
The physician and respiratory therapist function as an interprofessional team caring for patients on mechanical ventilation. There is a paucity of research devoted to interprofessional education (IPE) of students from different professions in mechanical ventilation during clinical rotations in the medical intensive care unit (MICU). Student interprofessional education could develop team communication and shared decision-making skills early in training. The uniqueness of this introductory IPE programme is that it occurs during a clinical rotation in a real MICU, as opposed to a pre-clinical simulated campus setting, and it blends students from various educational backgrounds. Medical students and respiratory therapy students from different academic institutions participated in traditional lectures, small interprofessional group case-based problem-solving sessions, MICU bedside teaching sessions, written assessments, and focus groups. Quantitative responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Qualitative responses were categorised using the core competencies for Interprofessional Collaborative Practice. The purpose of this introductory IPE programme was to foster opportunities for interprofessional interaction during the student clinical experience while improving knowledge about mechanical ventilation. Qualitative expectations and feedback were predominantly positive. Quantitative responses suggest that students from both disciplines gained knowledge about mechanical ventilation in an IPE setting.

Measuring interprofessional education and collaborative practice competencies: a content validity study of the Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide®.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 06/01/2023 - 04:19
Collaborative practice (CP) is integral in meeting the Quadruple Aim of healthcare, with effective team-based practice linked to improving all four components. Evidence of the validity of tools measuring collaborative practice competencies is lacking in educational and practice settings. The Jefferson Teamwork Observation Guide® (JTOG®), a real-time, 360-degree competency-based assessment tool administered via mobile app, provides formative feedback to learners in educational settings and helps practitioners develop and refine team-based behaviors in clinical settings. This study examines content validity evidence in terms of the linkage of JTOG items with the four Interprofessional Education Collaborative (IPEC) core competencies, along with two additional domains of leadership and patient-centeredness. Results provide content validity evidence to support use of the JTOG in interprofessional collaborative practice (IPCP) settings. The Teams and Teamwork competency was linked with every item, which is consistent with JTOG as a measure of teamwork. Aligning with the 2016 IPEC update, the JTOG items are all intercorrelated and together represent coverage across all competency areas. While items were typically linked to multiple competencies, each item only had one primary linkage. Analyses revealed that there is sufficient evidence of content validity relative to the intended IPCP competencies, and the JTOG tool is promising in its role to fill a gap in extant literature to measure collaborative practice behaviors.

Why are they “unreached”? Macro and Meso determinants of health care access in hard to reach areas of Odisha, India

Abstract Background

Reaching hard to reach populations is key to reduce health inequities. Despite targeted interventions, status of crucial public health indicators like neonatal and maternal mortality is still far from optimal. Complex interplay of social determinants can influence both communities and health care workers to effectively access each other. We argue that culturally sensitive and contextually relevant healthcare provision has potential to increase health care utilization by the vulnerable communities living in remote areas.

Methods

The study is an exploratory case study using rapid ethnographic techniques to understand the interplay of social determinants in hard to reach areas of Odisha state, India. We used in-depth interviews, focus group discussion, participatory action research and key informant interviews as tools for data collection. The analysis of data has been guided by thematic analysis approach.

Results

We found that there are further layers within the designated hard to reach areas and those can be designated as-i) extremely remote ii) remote and iii) reachable areas. Degree of geographic difficulties and cultural dynamics are deciding the ‘perceived’ isolation and interaction with health care providers in hard to reach areas. This ultimately leads to impacting the utilization of the facilities. At extremely remote areas, felt health needs are mainly fulfilled by traditional healers and ethno-medical practices. In reachable areas, people are more prone to seek care from the public health facilities because of easy accessibility and outreach. Being in middle people in remote areas, diversify health care seeking depending upon social (e.g. patient’s gender) economic (e.g. avoid catastrophic expenditure) and health system (timely availability of health human resources, language barriers) factors.

Conclusion

Our research highlights the need to value and appreciate different worldviews, beliefs and practices, and their understanding of and engagement with the pluralistic health care system around them. Other than pursuing the ‘mainstreaming’ of a standardized health system model across hard to reach areas, strategies need to be adaptive as per local factors. To handle that existing policies need revision with a focus on culturally sensitive and contextual care provision.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Mapping global evidence on public-private partnership for medical rehabilitation services delivery: a scoping review protocol

Abstract Introduction

Access to medical rehabilitation remains poor in Sub-Saharan Africa. This is partly due to inadequate service delivery emanating from ill-defined public health policies. Developed countries have adopted public-private partnership (PPP) agreements between the government and private sectors, thus presenting superior quality and access to rehabilitation services. To help develop a PPP model for physiotherapy service delivery in South Africa, this scoping review will map research linked to PPP for medical rehabilitation services delivery and outcomes in the global context.

Methodology

The Arksey and O’Malley (2005) framework (identify the research question, identify relevant research, select studies, chart the data, collate, summarize, and report findings) will be used to guide this review. Peer-reviewed literature will be searched in PubMed, EBSCOhost, Cochrane library, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar from 2000-2022 using a combination of keywords, Medical Subject Headings, and Boolean terms. Screening of the articles at all stages will be conducted independently by two reviewers using the eligibility criteria as a guide. The reference lists of retrieved articles will be manually searched for relevant studies. Emerging themes and sub-themes will be collated, summarized, and the results reported in the narrative form.

Discussion

We anticipate identifying literature gaps for future research to inform policy on PPP for rehabilitation services delivery in Sub-Saharan Africa and actual practice. The results of this review will contribute to building a model that will enable the provision of equitable rehabilitation services at the district health level using PPP.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Barriers to health in women of reproductive age living with or at risk of non-communicable diseases in Nigeria: a Photovoice study

Abstract Background

Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality ratios (MMR) globally with an MMR of 512 (per 100,000 live births) and the proportion of maternal deaths due to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) is increasing. While evidence shows that many of these deaths are preventable, limited attention is being paid to the unique vulnerabilities and experiences of women of reproductive age (WRA) with NCDs and their risk factors, as well as the barriers to the screening, diagnosis, and management of these diseases in Nigeria.

Methods

This study explored the lives of WRA in Lagos and Federal Capital Territory in Nigeria from May to June 2019 using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) methodology called Photovoice which is aligned with CBPR as it includes procedures such as the identification of important community issues, discussion of photo assignments and data analysis. Twenty-four women of reproductive age were provided with digital cameras and trained on how to capture photos that conveyed their current health, healthcare utilization and engagement, and experience journeys. Individual interviews with the women were held for an in-depth exploration of the photographs. The data was then analysed thematically.

Results

Six distinct themes were identified across the barriers highlighted by the women: food and nutrition, home and family, neighborhood-built environment, economic instability, religion and spirituality and low prioritization of self-care. These themes captured the challenge of reduced agency, limited contribution and participation, and a complex relationship between visible and invisible illness.

Conclusion

The perspectives of WRA in Nigeria obtained through this qualitative research provided a strong substratum for understanding the environmental barriers that predispose WRA to NCDs in Nigeria. The results of the study are useful for the improvement of woman-centred services of prevention, diagnosis, and management of NCD risk factors across the maternal and reproductive health care continuum in Nigeria.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Pregnancy risks and contraceptive use among postpartum mothers in Cameroon: implications for improving the coverage of postpartum family planning services

Abstract Background

The health hazards of short inter-birth intervals are severe in Cameroon. One-quarter of inter-birth intervals are less than 24 months and the probability of death before age 5 for children born after a short interval is double that associated with intervals of 36–47 months. We examine the risk of an unintended pregnancy in the 18 months following childbirth in Cameroon, taking into account the protective effects of lactational amenorrhea, delayed resumption of sex as well as contraceptive use.

Methods

Data from 3007 postpartum women in the nationally representative 2018 Cameroon Demographic and Health Survey were used. Risk of an unintended pregnancy was defined from current status information on resumption of sex and menses, contraceptive use, desire for another child within 12 months, and, for the minority of pregnant women, whether the conception was intended. Predictors of risk, and of modern method use, were assessed by bivariate and multivariate analysis.

Results

In the first 6 postpartum months, only 8% of women were fully at risk (i.e., sex and menses resumed but no contraceptive use), rising to 24% at 6–11 postpartum months, and further to 30% at months 12–17. Though 89% wanted to delay the next birth by at least 1 year, only 17% were currently using a modern method. Menstruating women were much more likely to be users than amenorrheic women: 27% versus 15% at months 12–17 postpartum. Urban and better educated women recorded higher contraceptive use but lower protection from other factors than rural, less educated women, with the net result that risk differed little across these population strata. Uptake of maternal and child health (MCH) services was high but only one-third of women had discussed family planning at a facility visit during the preceding 12 months.

Conclusions

These results underscore the need for improved postpartum family planning services by means of closer integration with mainstream health services. In view of evidence from other sources of heavy workload and weak motivation of health staff, this will require strong leadership. A related priority is to increase the number of staff trained in provision of long-acting methods, such as implants.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Analysing the Efficiency of Health Systems: A Systematic Review of the Literature

Abstract Background

Efficiency refers the use of resources in ways that optimise desired outcomes. Health system efficiency is a priority concern for policy makers globally as countries aim to achieve universal health coverage, and face the additional challenge of an aging population. Efficiency analysis in the health sector has typically focused on the efficiency of healthcare facilities (hospitals, primary healthcare facilities), with few studies focusing on system level (national or sub-national) efficiency. We carried out a thematic review of literature that assessed the efficiency of health systems at the national and sub-national level.

Methods

We conducted a systematic search of PubMed and Google scholar between 2000 and 2021 and a manual search of relevant papers selected from their reference lists. A total of 131 papers were included. We analysed and synthesised evidence from the selected papers using a thematic approach (selecting, sorting, coding and charting collected data according to identified key issues and themes).

Findings

There were more publications from high- and upper middle-income countries (53%) than from low-income and lower middle-income countries. There were also more publications focusing on national level (60%) compared to sub-national health systems’ efficiency. Only 6% of studies used either qualitative methods or mixed methods while 94% used quantitative approaches. Data envelopment analysis, a non-parametric method, was the most common methodological approach used, followed by stochastic frontier analysis, a parametric method. A range of regression methods were used to identify the determinants of health system efficiency. While studies used a range of inputs, these generally considered the building blocks of health systems, health risk factors, and social determinants of health. Outputs used in efficiency analysis could be classified as either intermediate health service outputs (e.g., number of health facility visits), single health outcomes (e.g., infant mortality rate) or composite indices of either intermediate outputs of health outcomes (e.g., Health Adjusted Life Expectancy). Factors that were found to affect health system efficiency include demographic and socio-economic characteristics of the population, macro-economic characteristics of the national and sub-national regions, population health and wellbeing, the governance and political characteristics of these regions, and health system characteristics.

Conclusion

This review highlights the limited evidence on health system efficiency, especially in low- and middle-income countries. It also reveals the dearth of efficiency studies that use mixed methods approaches by incorporating qualitative inquiry. The review offers insights on the drivers of the efficiency of national and sub-national health systems, and highlights potential targets for reforms to improve health system efficiency.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Pre-service medical education course completion and drop-out rates

Abstract Introduction

The “Global strategy on human resources for health: Workforce 2030” was adopted by the 69th World Health Assembly. Among its objectives is the strengthening of data on human resources for health, to inform evidence-based policy decisions. These data include the course completion and drop-out rates, to inform mechanisms that support recruitment and retention.

Objective

This paper sought to evaluate trends in course completion and drop-out rates of health workforce students. However, original data were only obtained for pre-service medical students, but no other health worker occupational groups.

Methods

A mixed method approach was employed to obtain data presented in this paper. A structured questionnaire was sent out to targeted medical training institutions, regulatory bodies, and National Medical Associations, supplemented by a web and literature search for existing studies or data reports. Data were analyzed using IBM SPSS Statistics version 21.0 (Chicago, IL, USA) and Microsoft Excel 2010.

Results

Eight previously published studies were identified originating from six countries, with course completion rates ranging from 84% in Pakistan to 98.6% in the United States of America, while the drop-out rates ranged from 1.4% in the United States of America to 16% in Pakistan. An analysis of pre-service medical students in Australia and New Zealand, revealed average course completion rates of 93.3% and 96.9%, respectively, and average drop-out rates of 6.7% and 3.1%, respectively. An analysis of pre-service medical students from Nigeria, revealed an average course completion rate of 88.3%, and an average drop-out rate of 11.7%. Data were not readily available for most countries targeted during the research, either because of lack of existing mechanisms for collation of required data or restrictions making such data publicly unavailable and inaccessible.

Conclusions

Drop-out rate for pre-service medical students varies across countries with some countries recording higher drop-out rates, which raise significant concerns about the capacity of such countries to scale up production of human resources for health. Data that monitor both course completion and drop-out rates, and seek to provide insight into reasons for observed numbers, can inform mechanisms to address the causes of course drop-out and support student retention.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Um modelo teórico-metodológico para análises de políticas com longas trajetórias e ação de atores em prol da mudança e da estabilidade

Políticas públicas, frequentemente, estão associadas a legados históricos constituídos em processos políticos nos quais atores agem em prol da mudança ou da estabilidade institucional. Este artigo apresenta uma proposta teórico-metodológica que usa o process tracing na identificação dos processos mais relevantes para o estudo da trajetória de políticas, por intermédio das lentes teóricas oferecidas pelos estudos sobre processo político e Teoria da Mudança Institucional Gradual. Essa abordagem teórico-metodológica possibilitou a identificação e a compreensão da influência de diferentes atores, de arranjos institucionais e mudanças na política para a força de trabalho médica (PFTM) da década de 1960 a 2010, bem como propiciou que se apreendesse na análise a importância da ação de atores que dirigiram o Ministério da Saúde, a partir de 2003, interessados em direcionar a PFTM às necessidades do Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). Con frecuencia, las políticas públicas están asociadas a legados históricos constituidos en procesos políticos en los cuales los actores actúan en pro del cambio o de la estabilidad institucional. Este artículo presenta una propuesta teórico-metodológica que usa el process tracing en la identificación de los procesos más relevantes para el estudio de la trayectoria de políticas por intermedio de las lentes teóricas ofrecidas por los estudios sobre proceso político y Teoría del Cambio Institucional Gradual. Ese abordaje teórico-metodológico posibilitó la identificación y la comprensión de la influencia de diferentes actores, de arreglos institucionales y cambios en la política para la fuerza de trabajo médica (PFTM) de la década de 1960 a 2010, así como propició que se captase en el análisis la importancia de la acción de actores que dirigieron el Ministerio de la Salud, a partir de 2003, interesados en dirigir la PFTM hacia las necesidades del Sistema Único de Salud. Public policies are often associated with historical legacies constituted by political processes in which actors seek to promote institutional change or maintain stability. This article presents a theoretical and methodological framework that uses process tracing to identify the most relevant processes for the study of the trajectory of policy through a theoretical lens that draws on studies of the public policy process and the theory of gradual institutional change. The framework enabled us to identify changes in medical workforce policy (MWP) between the 1960s and 2010s and understand the influence of different actors and institutional arrangements. Our findings also reveal the importance of the role of ministry of health executives interested in tailoring MWP to the needs of Brazil's public health system from 2003.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Prática colaborativa na estratégia saúde da família: expressões, possibilidades e desafios para produção do cuidado

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 26/12/2022 - 04:05
RESUMO Objetivo: compreender a configuração da prática colaborativa no contexto da Estratégia Saúde da Família (ESF). Método: trata-se de um estudo de caso único, de natureza qualitativa, realizado com 35 profissionais das equipes de saúde da família. A coleta de dados ocorreu por meio de entrevistas guiadas por roteiro semiestruturado e observação não participante. Os dados foram analisados por meio de Análise de Conteúdo Temática. Resultados: os resultados evidenciaram potencialidades da prática colaborativa para a qualificação das práticas profissionais e dos resultados de saúde no contexto da ESF. Entretanto observou-se insuficiência de dispositivos organizacionais para apoiar o trabalho compartilhado na ESF, inclusive no que tange às políticas públicas, revelando o chamamento para a educação interprofissional no contexto dos serviços de saúde para estimular a colaboração. Conclusão: a configuração da prática colaborativa interprofissional no contexto da Estratégica Saúde da Família é desafiadora e requer processos interacionais e de organização do trabalho. RESUMEN Objetivo: comprender la configuración de la Práctica Colaborativa en el contexto de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar. Método: se trata de un estudio de caso único, de carácter cualitativo, realizado con treinta y cinco profesionales de equipos de salud familiar. La recogida de datos se realizó mediante entrevistas guiadas por un guión semiestructurado y la observación no participante. Los datos se analizaron mediante un Análisis de Contenido Temático. Resultados: los resultados mostraron el potencial de la práctica colaborativa para la cualificación de las prácticas profesionales y los resultados de salud en el contexto del ESF. Sin embargo, se observaron insuficientes dispositivos organizativos para apoyar el trabajo compartido en los ESF, un reto a superar, incluso en lo que respecta a las políticas públicas, lo que revela la necesidad de una educación interprofesional en el contexto de los servicios de salud para estimular la colaboración. Conclusión: la configuración de la Práctica Colaborativa interprofesional en el contexto de la Estrategia de Salud Familiar es un reto y requiere procesos de interacción y organización del trabajo. ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the configuration of collaborative practice in the context of the Family Health Strateg y (FHS). Method: this is a single case study, of a qualitat ive nature, carried out with 35 professionals from the family health teams. Data collection took place through interviews guided by a semi-structured script and non-participant observation. Data were analyzed using Thematic Content Analysis. Results: the results showed the potential of collaborative practice for the qualification of professional practices and health outcomes in the conte xt of the FHS. However, there was a deficiency of organizational devices to support shared work in the FHS, including with regard to public policies, revealing the call for interprofessional education in the context of health services to encourage collaboration. Conclusion: the configuration of interprofessional collaborative practice in the context of the Family Health Strategy is challenging and requires interactional processes and work organization.

Factors that influence scope of practice of the five largest health care professions in Australia: a scoping review

Abstract Introduction

A well-functioning health system delivers quality services to all people when and where they need them. To help navigate the complex realm of patient care, it is essential that health care professions have a thorough understanding of their scope of practice. However, a lack of uniformity regarding scope of practice across the regulated health professions in Australia currently exists. This has led to ambiguity about what comprises scope of practice in some health care professions in the region.

Objective

The objective of this review was to explore the literature on the factors that influence scope of practice of the five largest health care professions in Australia.

Methods

This study employed scoping review methodology to document the current state of the literature on factors that influence scope of practice of the five largest health care professions in Australia. The search was conducted using the following databases: AMED (Allied and Complementary Medicine Database), CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Cochrane Library, EMBASE (Excerpta Medica Database), MANTIS (Manual, Alternative and Natural Therapy Index System), MEDLINE, PubMed, and SCOPUS. Additional data sources were searched from Google and ProQuest.

Results

A total of 12 771 publications were identified from the literature search. Twenty-three documents fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were included in the final analysis. Eight factors were identified across three professions (nursing & midwifery, pharmacy and physiotherapy) that influenced scope of practice: education, competency, professional identity, role confusion, legislation and regulatory policies, organisational structures, financial factors, and professional and personal factors.

Conclusion

The results of this study will inform a range of stakeholders including the private and public arms of the healthcare system, educators, employers, funding bodies, policymakers and practitioners about the factors that influence scope of practice of health professions in Australia.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Hospitalization, death, and probable reinfection in Peruvian healthcare workers infected with SARS-CoV-2: a national retrospective cohort study

Abstract Background

Peru has some of the worst outcomes worldwide as a result of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic; it is presumed that this has also affected healthcare workers. This study aimed to establish whether occupation and other non-occupational variables were risk factors for possible reinfection, hospitalization, and mortality from COVID-19 in cohorts of Peruvian healthcare workers infected with SARS-CoV-2.

Methods

Retrospective cohort study. Healthcare workers who presented SARS-CoV-2 infection between March 1, 2020, and August 6, 2021, were included. Occupational cohorts were reconstructed from the following sources of information: National Epidemiological Surveillance System, molecular tests (NETLAB), results of serology and antigen tests (SICOVID-19), National Registry of Health Personnel (INFORHUS), and National Information System of Deaths (SINADEF). The incidence of probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 was obtained in the cohorts of technicians and health assistants, nursing staff, midwives, dentists, doctors, and other healthcare workers. We evaluated whether the occupation and other non-occupational variables were risk factors for probable reinfection, hospitalization, and death from COVID-19 using log-binomial and probit binomial models, obtaining the adjusted relative risk (RRAJ).

Results

90,398 healthcare workers were included in the study. Most cases were seen in technicians and health assistants (38.6%), and nursing staff (25.6%). 8.1% required hospitalization, 1.7% died from COVID-19, and 1.8% had probable reinfection. A similar incidence of probable reinfection was found in the six cohorts (1.7–1.9%). Doctors had a higher incidence of hospitalization (13.2%) and death (2.6%); however, they were also those who presented greater susceptibility linked to non-occupational variables (age and comorbidities). The multivariate analysis found that doctors (RRAJ = 1.720; CI 95: 1.569–1.886) had a higher risk of hospitalization and that the occupation of technician and health assistant was the only one that constituted a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19 (RRAJ = 1.256; 95% CI: 1.043–1.512).

Conclusions

Peruvian technicians and health assistants would have a higher risk of death from COVID-19 than other healthcare workers, while doctors have a higher incidence of death probably linked to the high frequency of non-occupational risk factors. Doctors present a higher risk of hospitalization independent of comorbidities and age; likewise, all occupations show a similar risk of probable reinfection.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Scale-up of the DMPA-SC in Nigeria: Why policy matters

Abstract Background

Injectable contraceptives have contributed substantially to Nigeria's rise in modern family planning methods usage. They are one of the most commonly used and preferred means of contraception among women in the country. Enabling policies are required to assure contraceptive access, security, and use. This study aimed to investigate the policy environment and how it supports or limits Nigeria's introduction and scale-up of subcutaneous depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA-SC).

Methods

The design of this mixed-methods study was cross-sectional. Desk reviews of policy papers, key informant interviews, and in-depth interviews were used to obtain information from respondents about the introduction of DMPA-SC in Nigeria and how existing policies influenced its scale-up. Data on DMPA-SC and other injectables were gathered from Nigeria's national electronic logistics management information system.

Results

The findings suggest that policies such as task-shifting and task-sharing, cost-free policies, reproductive health policies, and others created an enabling environment for the scale-up of DMPA-SC adoption in Nigeria. The inclusion of DMPA-SC on the essential medicines list and the approved patent medicines list facilitated the scale-up process by ensuring private sector participation, removing economic barriers to access, fostering greater collaboration among health worker cadres, improving intersectoral partnerships, and improving logistics and client access. Despite significant anomalies in some implementing policies, injectable contraceptive consumption data demonstrate a progressive increase in DMPA-SC use during the study period. The results also indicate that policy initiatives have a favorable impact on the use of DMPA-SC throughout the country.

Conclusion

The existence of policies, the active participation of stakeholders, and the political will of the Nigerian health system's leadership have all aided in the scaling-up of the DMPA-SC. Understanding how to build an enabling policy climate is critical for providing women with family planning options. These lessons from Nigeria emphasize the importance of these levers, which should be considered by teams intending to introduce innovative health products, particularly in developing countries.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Physician emigration from Nigeria and the associated factors: the implications to safeguarding the Nigeria health system

Abstract Background

Adequate Human Resources for Health is indispensable to achieving Universal Health Coverage and physicians play a leading role. Nigeria with low physician–population ratio, is experiencing massive exodus of physicians. This study investigated emigration intention of physicians, the factors influencing it and discussed the implications to guide policy formulation and reforms, curtail the trend and safeguard the country’s health system.

Methods

Through cross-sectional survey, 913 physicians from 37 States were interviewed with semi-structured questionnaire using Google form shared via WhatsApp and Telegram forums of Nigeria Medical Association. Data were analysed with IBM-SPSS version-25 and charts were created with Microsoft-Excel. Chi-square and multiple regression tests were done with p-value set at 0.05.

Results

The mean age of respondents is 37.6 ± 7.9 years; majority of them are males (63.2%), married (75.5%) with postgraduate qualifications (54.1%) and working in public health facilities (85.4%). Whereas 13% and 19.3% are, respectively, satisfied with their work and willing to continue practice in Nigeria, 43.9% want to emigrate and 36.8% are undecided about future location of their practice. The commonest reasons for emigration are poor remuneration (91.3%), rising insecurity (79.8%) and inadequate diagnostic facilities (61.8%). Physicians working in public health facilities are 2.5 times less satisfied than their counterparts in non-public sector (AOR = 0.4; 95% CI = 0.3–0.8). Physicians in their thirties, forties and fifties are 3.5 (95% CI = 1.5–8.0), 5.5 (95% CI = 2.1–14.5) and 13.8 (95% CI = 3.9–49.3) times, respectively, more willing to retain practice in Nigeria than those younger and those satisfied with their work are 4.7 (AOR = 4.7, 95% CI = 2.9–7.4) times more willing to practice in Nigeria than those not satisfied.

Conclusion

Majority of Nigerian physicians want to emigrate for professional practice and top among the push factors are poor remuneration, rising insecurity and inadequate diagnostic facilities. The observed trend portends danger to the country’s health system due to the foreseeable negative consequences of physician deficit to the system. We recommend upward review of physician remuneration, a root cause analysis of insecurity to determine workable preventive measures and increased funding of the health sector to improve the diagnostic infrastructure, retain physicians and save the health system from imminent collapse.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Impact of workplace violence on anxiety and sleep disturbances among Egyptian medical residents: a cross-sectional study

Abstract Background

Workplace violence (WPV) against healthcare workers is a common occurrence worldwide, especially among young physicians and medical residents. This study aimed to explore the negative health impacts of WPV among medical residents in Egypt, and their perception regarding how safe it is to report violence.

Purpose

To investigate the prevalence of WPV among medical residents, its possible negative health impacts, specifically on sleep quality and mental health, and the perceived workplace safety climate.

Methods

This is a cross-sectional analytic study, using a convenience sample through an online questionnaire. An abuse index was calculated, generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) and sleep quality were collected from the reported outcomes.

Results

The study sample included 101 residents (86.1% females). The most common reported form of abuse was verbal abuse, with the most common reported perpetrators being senior staff members (59.4%). About 86% of participants were classified as poor sleepers, while 59.4% had GAD, and there were significant positive correlations between GAD and Global Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) scores with the abuse index. More than one third (35.6%) of residents reported a very high-risk Psychosocial Safety Climate (PSC) score, and 31.6% of them either strongly agreed or agreed that reporting a sexual harassment claim would be dangerous.

Conclusion

Workplace violence is common among Egyptian medical residents, with a significant negative impact on sleep quality and a rising risk of GAD. The promotion of a safe workplace environment is essential in protecting the health and wellbeing of medical residents.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Mapping age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence in adults in sub-Saharan Africa, 2000–2018

Abstract Background

Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still among the leading causes of disease burden and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), and the world is not on track to meet targets set for ending the epidemic by the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) and the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Precise HIV burden information is critical for effective geographic and epidemiological targeting of prevention and treatment interventions. Age- and sex-specific HIV prevalence estimates are widely available at the national level, and region-wide local estimates were recently published for adults overall. We add further dimensionality to previous analyses by estimating HIV prevalence at local scales, stratified into sex-specific 5-year age groups for adults ages 15–59 years across SSA.

Methods

We analyzed data from 91 seroprevalence surveys and sentinel surveillance among antenatal care clinic (ANC) attendees using model-based geostatistical methods to produce estimates of HIV prevalence across 43 countries in SSA, from years 2000 to 2018, at a 5 × 5-km resolution and presented among second administrative level (typically districts or counties) units.

Results

We found substantial variation in HIV prevalence across localities, ages, and sexes that have been masked in earlier analyses. Within-country variation in prevalence in 2018 was a median 3.5 times greater across ages and sexes, compared to for all adults combined. We note large within-district prevalence differences between age groups: for men, 50% of districts displayed at least a 14-fold difference between age groups with the highest and lowest prevalence, and at least a 9-fold difference for women. Prevalence trends also varied over time; between 2000 and 2018, 70% of all districts saw a reduction in prevalence greater than five percentage points in at least one sex and age group. Meanwhile, over 30% of all districts saw at least a five percentage point prevalence increase in one or more sex and age group.

Conclusions

As the HIV epidemic persists and evolves in SSA, geographic and demographic shifts in prevention and treatment efforts are necessary. These estimates offer epidemiologically informative detail to better guide more targeted interventions, vital for combating HIV in SSA.

Categorías: Investigaciones

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