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Interprofessional education within a nurse practitioner led paediatric service: A multi-methods study.
Simulating the healthcare workforce impact and capacity for pancreatic cancer care in Victoria: a model-based analysis
The incidence of pancreatic cancer is rising. With improvements in knowledge for screening and early detection, earlier detection of pancreatic cancer will continue to be more common. To support workforce planning, our aim is to perform a model-based analysis that simulates the potential impact on the healthcare workforce, assuming an earlier diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.Methods
We developed a simulation model to estimate the demand (i.e. new cases of pancreatic cancer) and supply (i.e. the healthcare workforce including general surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pain medicine physicians, and palliative care physicians) between 2023 and 2027 in Victoria, Australia. The model compares the current scenario to one in which pancreatic cancer is diagnosed at an earlier stage. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in Victoria, five-year survival rates, and Victoria’s population size were obtained from Victorian Cancer Registry, Cancer Council NSW, and Australian Bureau of Statistics respectively. The healthcare workforce data were sourced from the Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care’s Health Workforce Data. The model was constructed at the remoteness level. We analysed the new cases and the number of healthcare workforce by profession together to assess the impact on the healthcare workforce.Results
In the status quo, over the next five years, there will be 198 to 220 stages I-II, 297 to 330 stage III, and 495 to 550 stage IV pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed annually, respectively. Assuming 20–70% of the shift towards pancreatic cancer’s earlier diagnosis (shifting from stage IV to stages I-II pancreatic cancer within one year), the stages I-II cases could increase to 351 to 390 or 598 to 665 per year. The shift to early diagnosis led to substantial survival gains, translating into an additional 284 or 795 out of 5246 patients with pancreatic cancer remaining alive up to year 5 post-diagnosis. Workforce supply decreases significantly by the remoteness levels, and remote areas face a shortage of key medical professionals registered in delivering pancreatic cancer care, suggesting travel necessities by patients or clinicians.Conclusion
Improving the early detection and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is expected to bring significant survival benefits, although there are workforce distribution imbalances in Victoria that may affect the ability to achieve the anticipated survival gain.
“I think they should give primary health care a little more priority”. The primary health care in Caribbean SIDS: what can be said about adaptation to the changing climate? The case of Dominica— a qualitative study
Adaptation to climate change (CC) is a priority for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Caribbean, as these countries and territories are particularly vulnerable to climate-related events. Primary health care (PHC) is an important contributor to CC adaptation. However, knowledge on how PHC is prepared for CC in Caribbean SIDS is very limited. The aim of this paper is to discuss health system adaptation to climate change, with a focus on PHC.Methods
We explored the perspectives of PHC professionals in Dominica on PHC adaptation to climate change. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in each of the seven health districts in Dominica, a Caribbean SIDS, between November 2021 and January 2022. The semi-structured interview guide was based on the Essential Public Health Functions: assessment, access to health care services, policy development and resource allocation. Data coding was organized accordingly.Results
Findings suggest that health care providers perceive climate change as contributing to an increase in NCDs and mental health problems. Climate-related events create barriers to care and exacerbate the chronic deficiencies within the health system, especially in the absence of high-level policy support. Healthcare providers need to take a holistic view of health and act accordingly in terms of disease prevention and health promotion, epidemiological surveillance, and ensuring the widest possible access to healthcare, with a particular focus on the environmental and social determinants of vulnerability.Conclusion
The primary health care system is a key stakeholder in the design and operationalization of adaptation and transformative resilience. The Essential Public Health Functions should integrate social and climate and other environmental determinants of health to guide primary care activities to protect the health of communities. This study highlights the need for improved research on the linkages between climate events and health outcomes, surveillance, and development of plans informed by contextual knowledge in the SIDS.
Mapping study for health emergency and disaster risk management competencies and curricula: literature review and cross-sectional survey
With the increasing threat of hazardous events at local, national, and global levels, an effective workforce for health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM) in local, national, and international communities is urgently needed. However, there are no universally accepted competencies and curricula for Health EDRM. This study aimed to identify Health EDRM competencies and curricula worldwide using literature reviews and a cross-sectional survey.Methods
Literature reviews in English and Japanese languages were performed. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (English), and the ICHUSHI (Japanese) databases for journal articles published between 1990 and 2020. Subsequently, a cross-sectional survey was sent to WHO Health EDRM Research Network members and other recommended experts in October 2021 to identify competency models and curricula not specified in the literature search.Results
Nineteen studies from the searches were found to be relevant to Health EDRM competencies and curricula. Most of the competency models and curricula were from the US. The domains included knowledge and skills, emergency response systems (including incident management principles), communications, critical thinking, ethical and legal aspects, and managerial and leadership skills. The cross-sectional survey received 65 responses with an estimated response rate of 25%. Twenty-one competency models and 20 curricula for managers and frontline personnel were analyzed; managers' decision-making and leadership skills were considered essential.Conclusion
An increased focus on decision-making and leadership skills should be included in Health EDRM competencies and curricula to strengthen the health workforce.
In this commentary, we develop a conceptual proposal aimed to explain why a discourse of praise and admiration for healthcare professionals´ limitless dedication can trigger a general indifference to the burnout and suffering they experience. Ultimately, this can lead to the justification of the lack of resources dedicated to preventing these problems. We first start by pointing out the stigmatisation of healthcare professionals suffering from burnout and showing their vulnerability, highlighting the complex interactions that occur in the healthcare context and that increase the risk of perpetuating their suffering. Then, we appeal to the recognition of one’s own vulnerability as a key element towards the creation of a culture more focused on the duty of care for those who care for others. We conclude with several proposals for action to cope with burnout-related stigma, trying to change the superhuman image of health personnel and incorporating the vulnerability inherent to human beings.
Feminization of health workforce has been globally documented, but it has not been investigated in China. This study aims to analyze changes in the gendered composition of health workforce and explore the trend in different types of health workforce, health organizations and majors within China’s health system.Methods
The data were collected from China Health Statistical Yearbook from 2002 to 2020. We focused on health professionals including doctors, nurses, and pharmacists in health organizations. Trend analysis was employed to examine the change in the ratio of female health workforce over 18 years. The estimated average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated, and the reciprocals of variances for the female ratios were used as weights.Results
In China, health professionals increased from 4.7 million in 2002 to 10.68 million in 2020. Health professionals per 1000 population increased from 3.41 in 2002 to 7.57 in 2020. The ratio of female health professionals significantly increased from 63.85% in 2002 to 72.4% in 2020 (AAPC = 1.04%, 95% CI 0.96–1.11%, P < 0.001). Female doctors and pharmacists increased 4.7 and 7.9 percentage points from 2002 to 2020. Female health workers at township health centers, village clinics, centers for disease control and prevention had higher annual increase rate (AAPC = 1.67%, 2.25% and 1.33%, respectively) than those at hospital (0.70%) and community health center (0.5%). Female doctors in traditional Chinese medicine, dentistry and public health had higher annual increase rate (AAPC = 1.82%, 1.53% and 1.91%, respectively) than female clinical doctor (0.64%).Conclusions
More women are participating in the healthcare sector in China. However, socially lower-ranked positions have been feminizing faster, which could be due to the inherent and structural gender norms restricting women’s career. More collective and comprehensive system-level actions will be needed to foster a gender-equitable environment for health workforce at all levels.
A study of the impact of an interprofessional education module in Vietnam on students' readiness and competencies.
Exploring experiential learning within interprofessional practice education initiatives for pre-licensure healthcare students: a scoping review.
The role of medical support workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the NHS in the UK: A qualitative service evaluation at the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.
From humanitarian crisis to employment crisis: The lives and livelihoods of South Sudanese refugee health workers in Uganda.
This study investigated the mediating and moderating impact of core self-evaluations in the path from emotional labor to burnout. Our hypothesized associations are based on Hobfoll (Rev Gen Psychol 6:307–24, 2002) conservation of resources theory.Method
Three hundred nurses from four hospitals in Abadan, Iran, were invited to participate in our study. Of the 300, 255 completed all sections and questions in our survey for an 85% response rate. The posited direct and indirect effects were evaluated with structural equation modeling and the interaction effects were evaluated with hierarchical moderated regression and simple regression slope plots.Result
Deep acting has indirect effects on burnout through core self-evaluations. Though unrelated to surface acting, core self-evaluations moderate its impact: under low core self-evaluations, surface acting is strongly related to emotional exhaustion and inversely related to personal accomplishment, whereas, under high core self-evaluations, surface acting is unrelated to these burnout dimensions.Conclusion
Our findings reveal the dual functions of CSE as a psychological resource and buffer to offset the interpersonal demands of patient care. Limitations, directions for future research, and practical implications are discussed.
Registered nurses’ experiences regarding operational factors influencing the implementation of HIV care services in the mobile health clinics of eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal
Registered nurses working in the mobile health clinics (MHCs) play an important role in enabling HIV care access to populations in remote areas through Nurse Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy program (NIMART).Aim
To explore and describe the nurses’ experiences regarding operational factors influencing the implementation of HIV care services in the mobile health clinics (MHCs) of eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu Natal.Methods
Qualitative Exploratory Descriptive (QED) method was used after permission was granted from North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee provincial and local health authorities. Data saturation informed sample size of thirteen MHCs nurses were purposefully sampled to participate. Audio-recorded, semi-structured, online, one-on-one interviews guided by open-ended questions were done for data collection, and including demographic profile. The interview transcripts were analysed using Atlas-TI and SPSS descriptive statistics was used for demographics.Results
Eleven subthemes emerged under patient-related, nurse-related, and organisational-related themes which influence the operational factors in the MHCs, namely: patient defaulting treatment, lack of privacy, unavailability of phones, stressful and demotivating MHCs, nurses feel unsafe, lack of support from management, lack of budget, unavailability of computers, shortage of medical equipment, shortage of nursing staff and absence of data capturers.Conclusion
Structured contextual coaching and support program for nurses is imperative to ensure effective and strengthened operations in MHCs, further supported by improvement in human resource for health allocation for MHCs in light of expanding health care programsContributions
Evaluation of health care programmes, and human resource for health quality improvement needs in the clinical practice of HIV care of MHCs nurses which advocate for specific policy formulations.
Diaspora philanthropy describes the phenomenon that diasporas who live away from their home countries remain connected to their homelands and thus are motivated to give back to their countries of origin. The literature on diaspora philanthropy is growing, and multiple types of intermediary organizations have been identified, usually through single case studies. However, there is a need to systematically document the types and characteristics of intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy. This research uses a systematic literature review to define, summarize, and categorize intermediary organizations. Three main types of organizations emerged: nonprofit, government, and for-profit organizations. The nonprofit sector is seen as the primary type and contains five more specific categories of intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy. This research presents the current landscape of intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy and paves the way for future research on relevant topics.
Deconcentrating regulation in low- and middle-income country health systems: a proposed ambidextrous solution to problems with professional regulation for doctors and nurses in Kenya and Uganda
Regulation can improve professional practice and patient care, but is often weakly implemented and enforced in health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Taking a de-centred and frontline perspective, we examine national regulatory actors’ and health professionals’ views and experiences of health professional regulation in Kenya and Uganda and discuss how it might be improved in LMICs more generally.Methods
We conducted large-scale research on professional regulation for doctors and nurses (including midwives) in Uganda and Kenya during 2019–2021. We interviewed 29 national regulatory stakeholders and 47 subnational regulatory actors, doctors, and nurses. We then ran a national survey of Kenyan and Ugandan doctors and nurses, which received 3466 responses. We thematically analysed qualitative data, conducted an exploratory factor analysis of survey data, and validated findings in four focus group discussions.Results
Kenyan and Ugandan regulators were generally perceived as resource-constrained, remote, and out of touch with health professionals. This resulted in weak regulation that did little to prevent malpractice and inadequate professional education and training. However, interviewees were positive about online licencing and regulation where they had relationships with accessible regulators. Building on these positive findings, we propose an ambidextrous approach to improving regulation in LMIC health systems, which we term deconcentrating regulation. This involves developing online licencing and streamlining regulatory administration to make efficiency savings, freeing regulatory resources. These resources should then be used to develop connected subnational regulatory offices, enhance relations between regulators and health professionals, and address problems at local level.Conclusion
Professional regulation for doctors and nurses in Kenya and Uganda is generally perceived as weak. Yet these professionals are more positive about online licencing and regulation where they have relationships with regulators. Building on these positive findings, we propose deconcentrating regulation as a solution to regulatory problems in LMICs. However, we note resource, cultural and political barriers to its effective implementation.
Effects of intensive care unit quality assessment on changes in medical staff in medical institutions and in-hospital mortality
Quality assessments are being introduced in many countries to improve the quality of care and maintain acceptable quality levels. In South Korea, various quality assessments are being conducted to improve the quality of care, but there is insufficient evidence on intensive care units (ICUs). This study aims to evaluate the impact of ICU quality assessments on the structural indicators in medical institutions and the resulting in-hospital mortality of patients.Methods
This study used data collected in the 2nd and 3rd ICU quality assessments in 2017 and 2019. A total of 72,879 patients admitted to ICUs were included during this period, with 265 institutions that received both assessments. As for structural indicators, changes in medical personnel and equipment were assessed, and in-hospital deaths were evaluated as patient outcomes. To evaluate the association between medical staff and in-hospital mortality, a generalized estimating equation model was performed considering both hospital and patient variables.Results
Compared to the second quality evaluation, the number of intensivist physicians and experienced nurses increased in the third quality evaluation; however, there was still a gap in the workforce depending on the type of medical institution. Among all ICU patients admitted during the evaluation period, 12.0% of patients died in the hospital. In-hospital mortality decreased at the 3rd assessment, and hospitals employing intensivist physicians were associated with reduced in-hospital deaths. In addition, an increase in the number of experienced nurses was associated with a decrease in in-hospital mortality, while an increase in the nurse-to-bed ratio increased mortality.Conclusions
ICU quality assessments improved overall structural indicators, but the gap between medical institutions has not improved and interventions are required to bridge this gap. In addition, it is important to maintain skilled medical personnel to bring about better results for patients, and various efforts should be considered. This requires continuous monitoring and further research on long-term effects.