Background Countries worldwide are facing many challenges as they strive to ensure that health systems maintain essential health services (EHS) as they respond to the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. EHS have experienced widespread disruption due to pandemic-related social restrictions, high patient caseloads, underresourced health facility infrastructures, and shortages of medical equipment, medicines, diagnostics and staff, with health care workers (HCWs) placed under enormous strain. In Tanzania, unlike many other countries, which did not follow strict lockdown measures, disruption ofaccess to and utilization of health care services primarily due to anxiety and fear of contact with the infection while seeking medical care was observed. Redistribution of HCWs for a dedicated team allocated in the treatment sites and isolation sites further strained the available shortage of human resources for health. Method The continuity of essential health services (CES) project was implemented for one year from October 2020 to September 2021, whereby capacity strengthening to HCWs and strengthening of triage areas through minor renovation and equipment support was implemented. A cascade blended model of training was used to train HCWs. A pre-post study design was used to assess CES delivery in 17 regions of mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar from July 2019 to June 2020 (pre-project implementation) and July 2020 to September 2021 (post-project implementation). The study focused on four key indicators: (i) Number of institutional deliveries, (ii) Number of women who completed at least 4 ANC visits, (iii) Number of women who completed 4 PNC visits, and (iv) Number of children immunized with DPT3/Measles 2 Vaccination. The assessment used secondary data analysis whereby data on key indicators were extracted from the Tanzania District Health Information System 2 (DHIS2) platform as a national Health Management Information System to Microsoft Office Excel (version 2019) for all 297 facilities (264 facilities for Mainland and 33 for Zanzibar). Results It was found that all key indicators that were assessed were maintained following the implementation of the project interventions that aimed at maintaining EHS during the COVID-19 pandemic. This was contributed by the project interventions that were implemented, including HCWs training on infection prevention and control (IPC), distribution of the IPC reference documents including IPC guidelines and standard operating procedures (SOPs), provision of WASH and emergence medical equipment together with ring fencing to health facilities. Conclusion. The study found that the project interventions have remained relevant to the needs of communities, i.e., mothers and children under 5 years, as demonstrated by the maintenance of the essential MNCH services, as seen in the analysis performed from baseline to end-line in a number of the key EHS indicators: institutional deliveries, ANC, PNC and immunization, which were tracked. This calls for joint efforts between the government and partners on resource mobilization for scale-up so that the EHS is maintained and the country is prepared for these pandemics.
Human resources for health are at the center of healthcare service delivery and play an important role in ensuring the resilience of health systems. Utilizing the results from a case study examining hospital resilience during COVID-19, this article draws on the experience of individual hospital staff during the first and second waves of the pandemic, briefly describes government responses to support human resources for health during the early stages of the pandemic, and argues the importance of constructive discussions about strategies to create an enabling work environment for healthcare providers, both clinical and non-clinical, during future health shocks.
Background Health systems in many West African countries have suffered due to low public spending on health. Further, the requirement for high out-of-pocket payments by healthcare users accessing care has raised concerns about equitable access to COVID-19-related services. This study examines how the functioning of healthcare providers during the COVID-19 pandemic was affected by the government financing response to the pandemic, which itself is underpinned by existing healthcare financing systems. The analysis focuses on the key actor groups in healthcare service delivery, both providers and recipients of healthcare services at a tertiary hospital in Mali. Methods The study applied a single case study design. The case study was undertaken at a tertiary hospital in the Malian capital, Bamako, during the 1st and 2nd waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were gathered through a total of 51 in-depth interviews with hospital staff, participatory observation, and the review of media articles and hospital financial records. Thematic analysis using pre-coded themes was applied. The study results were presented to hospital management to confirm the validity of the data analysis. Results The study highlighted the disruptions experienced by hospital managers, human resources for health and patients in Mali during the early stages of the pandemic. While the government aimed to support universal access to COVID-19-related services, efforts were undermined by issues associated with complex public financing procedures and the hospital experienced long delays in the government transfer of funds. Additionally, the hospital suffered a decrease in revenue during the early stages of the pandemic. The challenges faced by the hospitals led to the delays in promised bonuses and payment of salaries to individual hospital staff members, which created potential for unfair treatment of patients. Conclusions Preexistent issues in healthcare financing and governance constrained the effective management of COVID-19 related services and created confusion at the front-line of healthcare service delivery. There is a need to reflect on hospital operations and human resource management in Mali and learn from the experience of COVID-19 to create an environment in which hospitals and their staff can deliver quality services and where patients can access healthcare services in times of need.
BACKGROUND: Community health workers (CHWs) are crucial human resources for health. While specialist CHWs focus on a single disease vertically, the generalist or multipurpose CHWs perform wider functions. The current study was aimed at examining the time multipurpose CHWs spend on performing their different roles. This can help in understanding the importance they attach to each role. Since CHWs in many developing countries are classified as part-time volunteers, this study also aimed to assess the adequacy of CHW payments in relation to their time use. METHODS: The study covered a well-established CHW programme in India's Chhattisgarh state. It had 71,000 multipurpose part-time CHWs known as Mitanins. Data collection involved interviews with a representative sample of 660 rural and 406 urban Mitanins. A semi-structured tool was designed and field tested. It included 26 pre-coded activities of CHWs placed under their six purposes or roles. Prompting and triangulation were used during interviews to mitigate the possibility of over-reporting of work by CHWs. The recall period was of one week. Descriptive analysis included comparison of key indicators for rural and urban Mitanins. A multi-variate linear model was used to find the determinants of CHW time-use. RESULTS: The rural and urban Mitanins respectively spent 25.3 and 34.8 h per week on their CHW work. Apart from location (urban), the total time spent was associated with size of population covered. The time-use was well balanced between roles of service-linkage, providing health education and curative care directly, COVID-19 related work and action on social determinants of health. More than half of their time-use was for unpaid tasks. Most of the cash-incentives were concentrated on service linkage role. The average payment earned by Mitanins was less than 60% of legal minimum wage. CONCLUSION: The time-use pattern of Mitanins was not dictated by cash-incentives and their solidarity with community seemed be a key motivator. To allow wide ranging CHW action like Mitanins, the population per CHW should be decided appropriately. The considerable time multipurpose CHWs spend on their work necessitates that developing countries develop policies to comply with World Health Organisation's recommendation to pay them fairly.
Achievement of Universal Health Coverage by any nation would depend on the density of the HW, quality of education and training HW receive, quality of care the HW provide, and the kind of support they receive from the society.3,4 This is in line with the 'global strategy on human resources for health workforce 2030' report by the World Health Organization (WHO). The report highlighted the significance of investments in the HW for improving public health and for economic and social progress.5 Among the professions under the HW umbrella, nurses are the most vulnerable to swift turnovers.3 The National Healthcare Retention and RN staffing Report-2016 reported that among the new graduate nurses, approximately 43%, 33.5% and 17.5% left their initial jobs within three, two, one year of employment respectively.1 The quick turnover has an array of repercussions in the delivery of care and monetary.6,7 Each percent change in nurse turnover could cost/save the hospital approximately $379 500.8 Quick turnover among nurses is attributed to, but not limited to the staff scarcity, arduous mental/ physical labour, job dissatisfaction, poor recognition, and international job opportunities.9,10 From the National Health Workforce Account (NHWA) 2018, India has 5.76 million HW, of which 2.34 million are nurses/midwives. The risk of subsequent healthcare-associated infection increase to 15%, when the patient is exposed to an inadequate number of nursing staff.12,13 As of June 16, 2021, India has 1735 nursing colleges duly recognized by the Indian Nursing Council (INC) (national regulatory body for nurses and nursing education in India) offering graduate training programs, wherein each year approximately 65 000 new graduates get their licensure to practice.2 The period of transition from theory to practice is the most demanding, emotionally draining, and nerve-racking experience for new nursing graduates who are expected to provide cautious nursing care in an environment of heightened liability.14 New nursing graduates ordinarily report their initial clinical experiences as arduous, whilst they attempt to habituate and provide standard patient care.15,16 Early negative clinical experiences could be attributed to incompetent clinical preceptors, poor communication skills, disharmony among health professionals, and an ill-suited working environment. Intent to leave the profession attributed to the occupational stress during the initial transition period has been reported across the globe.25,26 A shortage in the nursing workforce could lead to burnout, job dissatisfaction, increased errors, and elevated morbidity and mortality rate as compared to hospitals with higher nurse-patient ratios.27,28 Comprehending the issues that the new nursing graduates face during their initial period of transition into the clinical environment is of paramount importance.29,30 Identifying the transitional challenges can help the hospital administration in implementing strategies or programs aimed at ameliorating the difficulties that could result in an increased retention rate among new graduate nurses.31,32 Despite the reports of high attrition rates among the nurses in India, there is relatively little empirical research done to identify the transitional challenges that they encounter from their point of view during their transitional period.
Introduction: Logbooks are now ubiquitous in medical practice, aiding in provision of evidence of competency for training progression and revalidation processes. The Faculty of Intensive Care Medicine (FICM) recommends all practitioners keep a logbook, but does not mandate a particular one. During COVID19, redeployment from other specialties into ICU has meant many training opportunities have been difficult to evidence.1,2 Logbooks provide an evidence base for documenting educational experiences, identifying opportunities and learning from good practice.3 Objectives: The NorthWest Intensive Care Unit Logbook (NW ICU Logbook) provides a digital, spread-sheet based, easy-to-use, mobile-compatible personal logbook for ICU practitioners of all grades. Originally created for personal use, it has been made available for free for all. We used analytical software to track its use and spread so as to better understand the desire for such logbooks. Methods: Google Analytics were built into the logbook download website to track views and downloads. Data is collected anonymously and provides evidence of its appeal. Extrapolation of its spread suggests an increased focused on governance within global ICM. Prospective, real-time data is continuously collected regarding website traffic, number of downloads, geographical and device data. This provides a rich source of anonymised data to better understand the use of a product. Already, many businesses use such software, but this method is still relatively new within medicine. Results: The logbook has been downloaded over 3000 times from over 30 countries. Although interest is heavily centred in the UK, hotspots of downloads have also occurred in India, Egypt and Middle East. This is likely due to existing links and partnerships between hospitals. The logbook has been responsive to change, and several versions have been created based on feedback from users. The global appeal suggests an increased focus on educational governance and therefore presents many opportunities for further data collection and understanding of educational capacity and quality. Furthermore, expansion of the dataset may enable better understanding of human resources for health, caseload and global critical care trends. Conclusion: There continues to be an interest for an easyto-use and fit-for-purpose logbook for ICU practitioners. This logbook may form a template for further development. For example, an app would allow anonymised big data to be collected which can provide an evidence-base for regional variation in educational opportunities and achievements. Also, the global interest already shown may allow anonymised data which can add to evidence regarding human resources for health in low resource settings, further contributing to the understanding and advancing larger global health agendas within acute and emergency care.4 This provides a powerful opportunity for organisations to collect data for further research.
The pandemic of COVID is one of the greatest public health emergencies of current time. More than 200 countries got affected with this disease. Albeit the medical science has improved a lot along with the technological advancement, the pandemic hit hard on the health system throughout the globe. In some parts of the world, especially the developing world, the overburdened health system got more exacerbated owing to several of the health system issues or the building blocks and India is one such country which faced a lot of health system issues. One of the cardinal building blocks of the health system is the human resources for health or the health workforce that had to face serious challenges in the face of this pandemic. Apart from clinicians, there were other supporting staffs such as public health experts, epidemiologists, microbiologists, disease modeling experts, health communication experts, and many other frontline health workers (HWs) that got engaged in this pandemic. They had to face the pandemic very closely putting their own and family life at stake. The long and protracted working hours in hospital by putting personal protective equipment kit lead to mental health problems. Initially, the HWs faced stigma and discrimination and were labeled as spreaders of infection and were shunned by several communities. In addition to contraction of infection, stress, and burnout, the mortality was also seen to be relatively more among many of the HWs. Deployment and shifting of tasks became a regular phenomenon during the pandemic. Many states in India make provision to incentivize, motivate, award, and provide security to the HWs however that became miniscule in front of such a monstrous pandemic. This article critically analyzes the issues of health-care workers during the pandemic with special reference to India. © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Medknow Publications. All rights reserved.
BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has reinforced the importance of having sufficient, well-distributed and competent health workforce. In addition to improving health outcomes, increased investment has the potential to generate employment, increase labour productivity along with fostering economic growth. With COVID-19 highlighting the gaps in human resources for health in India, there is a need to better and empirically understand the level of required investment for increasing the production of health workforce in India for achieving the UHC/SDGs. METHODS: The study used data from a range of sources including National Health Workforce Account 2018, Periodic Labour Force Survey 2018-19, population projection of Census of India, and review of government documents and reports. The study estimated shortages in the health workforce and required investments to achieve recommended health worker: population ratio thresholds by the terminal year of the SDGs 2030. RESULTS: Our results suggest that to meet the threshold of 34.5 skilled health worker per 10,000 population, there will be a shortfall of 0.16 million doctors and 0.65 nurses/midwives in the total stock of human resources for health by the year 2030. The shortages at the same threshold will be much higher (0.57 million doctors and 1.98 million nurses/midwives) in active health workforce by 2030. The shortages are even higher when compared with a higher threshold of 44.5 health workers per 10,000 population. The estimated investment for the required increase in the production of health workforce ranges from INR 523 billion to 2,580 billion for doctors. For nurses/midwives, the required investment is INR 1,096 billion. Such investment during 2021-25 has the potential of an additional employment generation within the health sector to the tune of 5.4 million and contribute to national income to the extent of INR 3,429 billion annually. Conclusion: India needs to significantly increase the production of doctors and nurses(/midwives) through investing in opening up of new medical colleges. Nursing sector should be prioritized to encourage talents to join nursing profession and provide quality education. India needs to set-up a benchmark of skill-mix ratio and provide attractive employment opportunities in health sector to increase the demand and absorb the new supply of graduates.
BACKGROUND: Frameworks in higher education can support strategic curriculum change in complex systems. The impact of these frameworks in achieving their stated purpose is less known. An interprofessional education (IPE) framework and related multi-activity curriculum designed to develop health profession graduates with the requisite skills for collaborative care, was introduced in a large university, across eleven health professions. OBJECTIVE: To determine the utility of an interprofessional framework and impact upon perceived work readiness for collaborative practice. METHOD: A multimethod design using the context, input, process, product (CIPP) evaluation model was selected taking a social constructivist theoretical stance. Data collection included staffing allocation to IPE, curriculum audit, and reflections from representatives of all health professions courses offered at the institution. Data was analyzed using framework analysis. PARTICIPANTS: Interviews or focus groups were undertaken with academic Faculty (n = 13), recent graduates (n = 24) and clinical supervisors/employers of recent graduates (n = 17). RESULTS: The framework assisted the systematic implementation of interprofessional curriculum across the different health courses at the university. Collaborative work-ready learning outcomes were identified in graduates where targeted curriculum had been implemented across all four domains of the framework. Gaps identified in framework implementation were consistent with gaps identified in graduate knowledge and skills related to collaborative practice. The combination of formal university-based IPE and informal workplace learning as part of clinical placements contributed to achieving the desired learning outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: These findings offer insights into the use of shared frameworks to drive specific learning activities related to collaborative practice.
Family doctors in rural China are the main force for primary health care, but the workforce has not been well stabilized in recent years. Surface acting is an emotional labor strategy with a disparity between inner feelings and emotional displays, provoking negative effects such as emotional exhaustion, occupational commitment reduction, and, consequently, increasing turnover rate. With the Conservation of Resources theory, this study explores how the surface acting of rural family doctors affects turnover intention through emotional exhaustion and investigates what role occupational commitment plays in this relationship.
With a valid response rate of 93.89%, 953 valid data were collected by an anonymous self-administered questionnaire survey in December 2021 in Shandong Province, China. Cronbach’s Alpha and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were used to estimate reliability and construct validity, respectively. The PROCESS macro in SPSS was performed to analyze the mediating and moderated mediation effects of surface acting, emotional exhaustion, occupational commitment, and turnover intention.
Reliability and validity indicated that the measurement instruments were acceptable. Surface acting had a direct positive effect on turnover intention (β = 0.481, 95% CI [0.420, 0.543]). Emotional exhaustion partially mediated the effect of surface acting on turnover intention (indirect effect: 0.214, 95% CI [0.175, 0.256]). Occupational commitment moderated the effect of emotional exhaustion on turnover intention (β = − 0.065, 95% CI [− 0.111, − 0.019]), and moderated the indirect effect of surface acting on turnover intention via emotional exhaustion (index of moderated mediation: − 0.035).
Emotional exhaustion partially mediates the relationship between surface acting and turnover intention among family doctors in rural China, and occupational commitment moderates the direct effect of emotional exhaustion on turnover intention and further moderates the mediating effect. Policymakers should pay more attention to the effects of emotional labor and emotional resource depletion on the stability of rural health human resources.
International partnerships have an important role in capacity building in global health, but frequently involve travel and its associated carbon footprint. The environmental impact of global health partnerships has not previously been quantified.
We conducted a retrospective internal audit of the environmental impact of air travel for the international education programs of the Canadian Anesthesiology Society’s International Education Fund (CASIEF). We compiled a comprehensive list of volunteer travel routes and used the International Civil Aviation Organization Carbon Emissions Calculator, which considers travel distance, passenger numbers, and average operational data for optimized estimates. Comparisons were made with average Canadian household emissions and disability adjusted life years (DALYs) lost from climate change consequences.
The total carbon dioxide emitted (CO2-e) for the Rwanda, Ethiopia, and Guyana CASIEF partnerships were 268.2, 60.7, and 52.0 tons, respectively. The DALYs cost of these programs combined is estimated to be as high as 1.1 years of life lost due to the effects of CO2-e. The mean daily carbon cost of the average Rwanda partnership was equivalent to daily emissions of 2.2 Canadians (or 383 Rwandans), for the Guyana partnership was equivalent to 1.6 Canadians (or 7.6 Guyanese people), and for the Ethiopia partnership was equivalent to 2.4 Canadians (or 252 Ethiopian people).
Air travel from these CASIEF partnerships resulted in 380.9 tons CO2-e but also enabled 5,601 volunteer days-in-country since 2014. The estimated environmental cost needs to be balanced against the impact of the programs. Regardless, carbon-reduction remains a priority, whether by discouraging premium class travel, organizing longer trips to reduce daily emissions, prioritizing remote support and virtual education, or developing partnerships closer to home.
The increasing complexity of the migration pathways of health and care workers is a critical consideration in the reporting requirements of international agreements designed to address their impacts. There are inherent challenges across these different agreements including reporting functions that are misaligned across different data collection tools, variable capacity of country respondents, and a lack of transparency or accountability in the reporting process. Moreover, reporting processes often neglect to recognize the broader intersectional gendered and racialized political economy of health and care worker migration. We argue for a more coordinated approach to the various international reporting requirements and processes that involve building capacity within countries to report on their domestic situation in response to these codes and conventions, and internationally to make such reporting result in more than simply the sum of their responses, but to reflect cross-national and transnational interactions and relationships. These strategies would better enable policy interventions along migration pathways that would more accurately recognize the growing complexity of health worker migration leading to more effective responses to mitigate its negative effects for migrants, source, destination, and transit countries. While recognizing the multiple layers of complexity, we nevertheless reaffirm the fact that countries still have an ethical responsibility to undertake health workforce planning in their countries that does not overly rely on the recruitment of migrant health and care workers.
An Integrated Community treatment of Childhood disease (ICCM)- focused intervention involving a large number of Patent and proprietary medicine vendors (PPMVs) was conducted by Society for Family Health Nigeria to improve management of childhood, malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea with an intervention approach focused on knowledge and skill improvement. The intervention was conducted in Kaduna and Ebonyi state; recruited and trained 15 interpersonal communication agents (IPCAs) who were saddled with the responsibility to sensitize and mobilize caregivers with children within the age bracket of 2 months to 5 years to our mapped PPMVs within the communities, on the account of Malaria, Diarrhea, and Pneumonia; while the IPCAs in return monitor the quality-of-service delivery. Following the intervention, the Society for Family health conducted a study to demonstrate the effectiveness of interventions such as ICCM training, supervision and linkage to quality ICCM commodities, among PPMVs to achieve high levels of knowledge and performance in diagnosing and treating common childhood illnesses.
Longitudinal research (before and after study) was adopted for the study. From the 387 PPMVs recruited and trained by SFH, 165 PPMVs were systematically selected to participate in the study, before and after the implementation of the intervention. Using SPSS version 22, data from the observation and completed questionnaires were analyzed and a chi-square test was used to examine the associations between the categorical information collected prior and after the intervention. The analysis was conducted at 5% level of significance.
More than 50 % of the study participants were females (56.4%) and majority were either Junior community extension workers (35%) or Senior community extension worker (27%). About 21.8% trained PPMVs could not appropriately treat malaria in the first quarter of the intervention, however, there was a significant decrease to 1.8% in second quarter in the number of those that cannot appropriately diagnose and treat malaria. There was also a decrease in the number of those who could not treat cough and fast breathing from 47(28.5%) to 14(8.5%) in the second quarter and for diarrhea from 33.3% in the first quarter to 2.4% in the second quarter.
The study revealed a significant improvement in the quality of treatment provided by the trained PPMVs across the three disease areas. PPMVs in hard-to-reach areas should be trained and supported to continuously provide quality services to change the indices of under-5 mortality in Nigeria.
INTRODUCTION: In urban areas, numerous barriers exist for children and families to access needed behavioral health care. Compounding the general deficit of behavioral health workers in the United States is lack of access to culturally responsive care. Additional challenges include inherent racism and oppression in our health and human service systems and siloed approaches to behavioral health care training and practice. Integrated care is an emerging field nationally, yet training and education in integrated care is limited. This article provides an overview of the Child/Adolescent Interprofessional Practice and Education (CAIPE) program, a novel training approach in its first year of implementation for behavioral health students that prioritizes trauma-informed and social-justice oriented practice, integrated care, and interprofessional teamwork. METHOD: This study employs a mixed-methods approach to program evaluation. Data sources include program application materials (demographics and data related to clinical interests, student goals, and preparedness for interprofessional work). Data is also drawn from measures of student outcomes (self-efficacy navigating complex care patients, empathy, and complex care knowledge). RESULTS: Baseline data are reported for demographics, students' goals and interprofessional interests, and student outcomes. Information is also presented relevant to trainings conducted in the grant's first year and planned for subsequent years. Preliminary data and implementation suggest that the program has drawn diverse trainees who are committed to interprofessional, integrated care for underserved youth. DISCUSSION: Recruitment and program development challenges are discussed, along with grant goals' fit with students' interests and plans for future evaluation. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
Objective: Interprofessional education (IPE) is when two or more students from different professions learn with, from, and about each other to improve collaboration and quality of healthcare. In October 2019, a first interprofessional education (IPE) day was held in the canton of Zurich with the aim of teaching interprofessional skills to participating students. Methodology: The IPE day was developed by an interprofessional team of students. After a short introduction, the roles and tasks of the professional groups involved were discussed. This was followed by two case studies with simulation persons and reflection rounds. For the evaluation of the day, 15 semi-structured interviews with students and lecturers were conducted and qualitatively evaluated by means of thematic analysis. Results: The students and lecturers had a very positive experience of the IPE day. Especially the participation of medical and pharmacy students, the practical case studies with simulation persons and the informal exchange during the breaks were appreciated. There was room for improvement in the development of role models. Through an open attitude and good communication, the students learned to know and appreciate the competencies of the other professional groups. All those interviewed wished for more interprofessional teaching opportunities and the students felt encouraged to apply what they had learned in their later professional practice. Conclusion: The IPE day could be carried out successfully and the didactic concept worked largely well. The evaluation provided subjective evidence that the students were able to improve the interprofessional competencies of teamwork, communication, openness, appreciation and reflectiveness. In the future, the IPE day should be anchored in the curricula.
Service user involvement in interprofessional education and collaborative practice remains limited despite the increasing push for this by governments and grant funding bodies. This rapid review investigated service user involvement in interprofessional education, practice, and research to determine factors that enable or hinder such involvement. Following the Cochrane and the World Health Organization's rapid review guidelines, a targeted search was undertaken in four databases. Subsequent to the screening processes, included papers were critically appraised, and extracted data were synthesized narratively. Sixteen studies met inclusion criteria. Most studies were related to interprofessional collaborative practice, as opposed to education and research. Service user involvement was more in the form of consultation and collaboration, as opposed to consumer-led partnerships. Enablers and barriers to service user involvement in IPECP were identified. Enablers included structure, the valuing of different perspectives, and relationships. Barriers included time and resources, undesirable characteristics, and relationships. This rapid review has added evidence to a swiftly expanding field, providing timely guidance. Healthcare workers can benefit from targeted training. Policy makers, healthcare organizations, and governments can investigate strategies to mitigate the time and resource challenges that impede service user involvement in IPECP.
Despite increasing international demand for interprofessional education (IPE) in health care, there remains limited understanding of the kind of faculty development (FD) activities needed. This paper reports on a protocol for a systematic review to answer the question: What are the available FD activities for IPE facilitators, and which are more effective? The review aims to identify principles and methods to develop competent facilitators in IPE and to identify the implications and effects of FD for IPE concerning individuals, organizations, education, and health practice. Literature was identified through systematic searches in the electronic databases: MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), Eric (EBSCO), CINAHL (EBSCO), Scopus, and Web of Science. There will be no restrictions on language or publication period. Screening of potential studies will be completed independently by at least two reviewers. The research quality of studies will be assessed for methodological rigor using established instruments based on the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme. Search results will be summarized using the PRISMA flow diagram. The proposed review seeks to provide clarity on the evidence base of FD for IPE facilitators, to strengthen future design and delivery of FD activities, and to enable ongoing success of this educational model.