Simulating the healthcare workforce impact and capacity for pancreatic cancer care in Victoria: a model-based analysis

Abstract Background

The incidence of pancreatic cancer is rising. With improvements in knowledge for screening and early detection, earlier detection of pancreatic cancer will continue to be more common. To support workforce planning, our aim is to perform a model-based analysis that simulates the potential impact on the healthcare workforce, assuming an earlier diagnosis of pancreatic cancer.

Methods

We developed a simulation model to estimate the demand (i.e. new cases of pancreatic cancer) and supply (i.e. the healthcare workforce including general surgeons, medical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pain medicine physicians, and palliative care physicians) between 2023 and 2027 in Victoria, Australia. The model compares the current scenario to one in which pancreatic cancer is diagnosed at an earlier stage. The incidence of pancreatic cancer in Victoria, five-year survival rates, and Victoria’s population size were obtained from Victorian Cancer Registry, Cancer Council NSW, and Australian Bureau of Statistics respectively. The healthcare workforce data were sourced from the Australian Government Department of Health and Aged Care’s Health Workforce Data. The model was constructed at the remoteness level. We analysed the new cases and the number of healthcare workforce by profession together to assess the impact on the healthcare workforce.

Results

In the status quo, over the next five years, there will be 198 to 220 stages I-II, 297 to 330 stage III, and 495 to 550 stage IV pancreatic cancer cases diagnosed annually, respectively. Assuming 20–70% of the shift towards pancreatic cancer’s earlier diagnosis (shifting from stage IV to stages I-II pancreatic cancer within one year), the stages I-II cases could increase to 351 to 390 or 598 to 665 per year. The shift to early diagnosis led to substantial survival gains, translating into an additional 284 or 795 out of 5246 patients with pancreatic cancer remaining alive up to year 5 post-diagnosis. Workforce supply decreases significantly by the remoteness levels, and remote areas face a shortage of key medical professionals registered in delivering pancreatic cancer care, suggesting travel necessities by patients or clinicians.

Conclusion

Improving the early detection and diagnosis of pancreatic cancer is expected to bring significant survival benefits, although there are workforce distribution imbalances in Victoria that may affect the ability to achieve the anticipated survival gain.

Categorías: Investigaciones

“I think they should give primary health care a little more priority”. The primary health care in Caribbean SIDS: what can be said about adaptation to the changing climate? The case of Dominica— a qualitative study

Abstract Background

Adaptation to climate change (CC) is a priority for Small Island Developing States (SIDS) in the Caribbean, as these countries and territories are particularly vulnerable to climate-related events. Primary health care (PHC) is an important contributor to CC adaptation. However, knowledge on how PHC is prepared for CC in Caribbean SIDS is very limited. The aim of this paper is to discuss health system adaptation to climate change, with a focus on PHC.

Methods

We explored the perspectives of PHC professionals in Dominica on PHC adaptation to climate change. Focus group discussions (FGDs) were conducted in each of the seven health districts in Dominica, a Caribbean SIDS, between November 2021 and January 2022. The semi-structured interview guide was based on the Essential Public Health Functions: assessment, access to health care services, policy development and resource allocation. Data coding was organized accordingly.

Results

Findings suggest that health care providers perceive climate change as contributing to an increase in NCDs and mental health problems. Climate-related events create barriers to care and exacerbate the chronic deficiencies within the health system, especially in the absence of high-level policy support. Healthcare providers need to take a holistic view of health and act accordingly in terms of disease prevention and health promotion, epidemiological surveillance, and ensuring the widest possible access to healthcare, with a particular focus on the environmental and social determinants of vulnerability.

Conclusion

The primary health care system is a key stakeholder in the design and operationalization of adaptation and transformative resilience. The Essential Public Health Functions should integrate social and climate and other environmental determinants of health to guide primary care activities to protect the health of communities. This study highlights the need for improved research on the linkages between climate events and health outcomes, surveillance, and development of plans informed by contextual knowledge in the SIDS.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Mapping study for health emergency and disaster risk management competencies and curricula: literature review and cross-sectional survey

Abstract Background

With the increasing threat of hazardous events at local, national, and global levels, an effective workforce for health emergency and disaster risk management (Health EDRM) in local, national, and international communities is urgently needed. However, there are no universally accepted competencies and curricula for Health EDRM. This study aimed to identify Health EDRM competencies and curricula worldwide using literature reviews and a cross-sectional survey.

Methods

Literature reviews in English and Japanese languages were performed. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL (English), and the ICHUSHI (Japanese) databases for journal articles published between 1990 and 2020. Subsequently, a cross-sectional survey was sent to WHO Health EDRM Research Network members and other recommended experts in October 2021 to identify competency models and curricula not specified in the literature search.

Results

Nineteen studies from the searches were found to be relevant to Health EDRM competencies and curricula. Most of the competency models and curricula were from the US. The domains included knowledge and skills, emergency response systems (including incident management principles), communications, critical thinking, ethical and legal aspects, and managerial and leadership skills. The cross-sectional survey received 65 responses with an estimated response rate of 25%. Twenty-one competency models and 20 curricula for managers and frontline personnel were analyzed; managers' decision-making and leadership skills were considered essential.

Conclusion

An increased focus on decision-making and leadership skills should be included in Health EDRM competencies and curricula to strengthen the health workforce.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The workforce crisis in healthcare: Moving the debate to bridge evidence and policy.

This Special Issue aims to advance the healthcare workforce (HCWF) debate by directing its attention to the implementation of policy recommendations and identifying weaknesses. The selection of articles highlights a wide range of HCWF policies and interventions across various countries. The challenges faced often stem from policy failures and governance gaps at the macro-, meso- and micro-levels of health systems. Recommendations to mitigate the HCWF crisis include interconnected strategies, multi-/transsectoral policies, solidarity-based efforts, collaboration, skill-mix reforms, equity measures, global approaches, and crucially, strong political will. In addition, specific policy solutions are explored, such as community-centred action and employment of community health workers, mental health support initiatives, inclusion of refugees and displaced healthcare workers into the labour market, and preparing the HCWF for the impact of climate change. This Special Issue calls for transformative HCWF policies and multi-level transsectoral governance as essential components needed to effectively address the crisis. This will only be possible, if HCWF policy moves higher up in the public policy arena leading, among other things, to the establishment of HCWF research as a distinct academic field.
Categorías: Investigaciones

“Superheroes? No, thanks.” Accepting vulnerability in healthcare professionals

Abstract

In this commentary, we develop a conceptual proposal aimed to explain why a discourse of praise and admiration for healthcare professionals´ limitless dedication can trigger a general indifference to the burnout and suffering they experience. Ultimately, this can lead to the justification of the lack of resources dedicated to preventing these problems. We first start by pointing out the stigmatisation of healthcare professionals suffering from burnout and showing their vulnerability, highlighting the complex interactions that occur in the healthcare context and that increase the risk of perpetuating their suffering. Then, we appeal to the recognition of one’s own vulnerability as a key element towards the creation of a culture more focused on the duty of care for those who care for others. We conclude with several proposals for action to cope with burnout-related stigma, trying to change the superhuman image of health personnel and incorporating the vulnerability inherent to human beings.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Feminization of the health workforce in China: exploring gendered composition from 2002 to 2020

Abstract Background

Feminization of health workforce has been globally documented, but it has not been investigated in China. This study aims to analyze changes in the gendered composition of health workforce and explore the trend in different types of health workforce, health organizations and majors within China’s health system.

Methods

The data were collected from China Health Statistical Yearbook from 2002 to 2020. We focused on health professionals including doctors, nurses, and pharmacists in health organizations. Trend analysis was employed to examine the change in the ratio of female health workforce over 18 years. The estimated average annual percent change (AAPC) was estimated, and the reciprocals of variances for the female ratios were used as weights.

Results

In China, health professionals increased from 4.7 million in 2002 to 10.68 million in 2020. Health professionals per 1000 population increased from 3.41 in 2002 to 7.57 in 2020. The ratio of female health professionals significantly increased from 63.85% in 2002 to 72.4% in 2020 (AAPC = 1.04%, 95% CI 0.96–1.11%, P < 0.001). Female doctors and pharmacists increased 4.7 and 7.9 percentage points from 2002 to 2020. Female health workers at township health centers, village clinics, centers for disease control and prevention had higher annual increase rate (AAPC = 1.67%, 2.25% and 1.33%, respectively) than those at hospital (0.70%) and community health center (0.5%). Female doctors in traditional Chinese medicine, dentistry and public health had higher annual increase rate (AAPC = 1.82%, 1.53% and 1.91%, respectively) than female clinical doctor (0.64%).

Conclusions

More women are participating in the healthcare sector in China. However, socially lower-ranked positions have been feminizing faster, which could be due to the inherent and structural gender norms restricting women’s career. More collective and comprehensive system-level actions will be needed to foster a gender-equitable environment for health workforce at all levels.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Report of the Seventh Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health: Budapest, 5–7 July 2023

The Seventh Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health of the World Health Organization (WHO) European Environment and Health Process (EHP) took place in Budapest, Hungary, on 5–7 July 2023, at the kind invitation of the Government of Hungary. It was attended by over 600 high-level representatives of Member States, institutional stakeholders, youth organizations and nongovernmental organizations. The Conference adopted the Budapest Declaration, which prioritizes urgent, wide-ranging action on health challenges related to climate change, environmental pollution, biodiversity loss and land degradation, as well as governance issues and human resources for health, in the context of recovery from the pandemic of coronavirus disease. The Declaration provides for a new implementation mechanism, the EHP Partnerships: the first four Partnerships, on human biomonitoring, health-sector climate action, healthy active mobility and youth, were launched during the Conference. The Conference further considered the updated second edition of the report Zero regrets: scaling up action on climate change mitigation and adaptation for health in the WHO European Region.
Categorías: Investigaciones

The role of medical support workers during the COVID-19 pandemic in the NHS in the UK: A qualitative service evaluation at the Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust.

We conducted a service evaluation of the medical support worker (MSW) role at Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust following the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The aim was to explore the roles of MSWs, their contributions to the NHS, factors influencing their career choices, and the goals of the MSW position, to inform quality improvement in relation to their integration into the Trust. The perspectives of MSWs, their supervisors and recruiters were analysed through nine semi-structured interviews and two focus group discussions involving 18 participants. Results were categorised into micro-, meso-, and macro-levels of the health system. At the micro-level, MSWs were recognised as a diverse group of highly qualified international medical graduates (IMGs) who had a crucial role during the pandemic. At the meso-level, participants emphasised the importance of a comprehensive induction by the hospital, to clarify responsibilities and familiarise MSWs with the health system. At the macro-level, the role facilitated MSW integration within the NHS, with the aim of practising as doctors. The importance of comprehensive hospital induction, with role clarity for both MSWs and their teams, supportive supervision and assistance with applying for registration with the General Medical Council, were highlighted as key quality improvement areas.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Estudios de brechas de especialidades médicas: alcances y limitaciones de su aplicación

Abordar la planificación de recursos humanos en salud requiere de metodologías rigurosas y con datos de calidad que sean factibles y útiles para la toma de decisiones informadas. Se plantea identificar los principales aportes, las limitaciones y algunos desafíos del proceso de estimación de brechas entre la necesidad y oferta real de los recursos humanos en salud desde una perspectiva de salud pública. La metodología se basa en analizar los estudios en Uruguay a partir de fuentes primarias y una revisión de bibliografía de estudios de casos en el mundo. La realización de los estudios de brechas en las especialidades médicas son técnicamente factibles en sistemas de salud de diversos países. La información se encuentra disponible de manera directa en las bases de datos o a través de la elaboración de variables proxy, dependiendo de si el enfoque está más centrado en la demanda y utilización real de los servicios o en la identificación de los problemas y la necesidad de salud de la población. Addressing human resources planning in healthcare requires rigorous methodologies and high-quality data that are feasible and useful for informed decision-making. The objective is to identify the primary contributions, limitations, and some challenges of the gap estimation process between the actual need and supply of human resources in health, from a public health perspective. The methodology relies on analyzing studies from Uruguay using primary sources and conducting a literature review of case studies from various countries worldwide. The conduct of gap studies in medical specialties is technically feasible in healthcare systems across various countries on all five continents. The information is readily available either directly in databases or through the creation of proxy variables, depending on whether the focus is more on the actual demand and utilization of services or on the identification of problems and health needs of the population. Abordar o planejamento de recursos humanos em saúde requer metodologias rigorosas com dados de qualidade que sejam viáveis e úteis para a tomada de decisões informada. Propõe-se identificar as principais contribuições, limitações e alguns desafios do processo de estimativa de lacunas entre a necessidade e a real oferta de recursos humanos em saúde, numa perspectiva de saúde pública. A metodologia baseia-se na análise de estudos do Uruguai a partir de fontes primárias e na revisão bibliográfica de estudos de caso em vários países do mundo. A realização de estudos de lacunas em especialidades médicas é tecnicamente viável nos sistemas de saúde de vários países dos cinco continentes. A informação é disponibilizada diretamente nas bases de dados ou através do desenvolvimento de variáveis proxy, dependendo se a abordagem está orientada na real procura e utilização dos serviços ou na identificação de problemas e necessidades de saúde da população.
Categorías: Investigaciones

From humanitarian crisis to employment crisis: The lives and livelihoods of South Sudanese refugee health workers in Uganda.

Despite the many benefits of refugee health workers for health systems, they commonly face challenges integrating into host country workforces. The Global Code of Practice on International Recruitment of Health Personnel, which should monitor and protect migrant health workers, offers little guidance for refugees and research is needed to inform strategy. Based on interviews with 34 refugee health workers and 10 leaders across two settlements supporting populations fleeing the humanitarian crisis in South Sudan since 2013, we describe the governance and social dynamics affecting South Sudanese refugee health worker employment in Uganda. Refugees in Uganda legally have the right to work but face an employment crisis. Refugee health workers report that systemic discrimination, competition from underemployed domestic workers, unclear work permit rules and expensive credentialling processes exclude them from meaningful work in public health facilities and good jobs in the humanitarian response. This pushes them into unchallenging roles in private clinics, poorly remunerated positions on village health teams or out of the health sector altogether. Health system strengthening initiatives in Uganda to integrate humanitarian and government services and to deter the domestic workforce from emigration have overlooked the potential contributions of refugee health workers and the employment crisis they face. More effort is needed to increase fairness in public sector recruitment practices for refugee health workers, support credentialling, training opportunities for professional and non-professional cadres, job placements, and to draw attention to the public benefits of refugee health worker employment alongside higher spending on human resources for health.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Emotional labor and burnout among nurses in Iran: core self-evaluations as mediator and moderator

Abstract Background

This study investigated the mediating and moderating impact of core self-evaluations in the path from emotional labor to burnout. Our hypothesized associations are based on Hobfoll (Rev Gen Psychol 6:307–24, 2002) conservation of resources theory.

Method

Three hundred nurses from four hospitals in Abadan, Iran, were invited to participate in our study. Of the 300, 255 completed all sections and questions in our survey for an 85% response rate. The posited direct and indirect effects were evaluated with structural equation modeling and the interaction effects were evaluated with hierarchical moderated regression and simple regression slope plots.

Result

Deep acting has indirect effects on burnout through core self-evaluations. Though unrelated to surface acting, core self-evaluations moderate its impact: under low core self-evaluations, surface acting is strongly related to emotional exhaustion and inversely related to personal accomplishment, whereas, under high core self-evaluations, surface acting is unrelated to these burnout dimensions.

Conclusion

Our findings reveal the dual functions of CSE as a psychological resource and buffer to offset the interpersonal demands of patient care. Limitations, directions for future research, and practical implications are discussed.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Registered nurses’ experiences regarding operational factors influencing the implementation of HIV care services in the mobile health clinics of eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu-Natal

Abstract Background

Registered nurses working in the mobile health clinics (MHCs) play an important role in enabling HIV care access to populations in remote areas through Nurse Initiated Antiretroviral Therapy program (NIMART).

Aim

To explore and describe the nurses’ experiences regarding operational factors influencing the implementation of HIV care services in the mobile health clinics (MHCs) of eThekwini Municipality in KwaZulu Natal.

Methods

Qualitative Exploratory Descriptive (QED) method was used after permission was granted from North-West University Human Research Ethics Committee provincial and local health authorities. Data saturation informed sample size of thirteen MHCs nurses were purposefully sampled to participate. Audio-recorded, semi-structured, online, one-on-one interviews guided by open-ended questions were done for data collection, and including demographic profile. The interview transcripts were analysed using Atlas-TI and SPSS descriptive statistics was used for demographics.

Results

Eleven subthemes emerged under patient-related, nurse-related, and organisational-related themes which influence the operational factors in the MHCs, namely: patient defaulting treatment, lack of privacy, unavailability of phones, stressful and demotivating MHCs, nurses feel unsafe, lack of support from management, lack of budget, unavailability of computers, shortage of medical equipment, shortage of nursing staff and absence of data capturers.

Conclusion

Structured contextual coaching and support program for nurses is imperative to ensure effective and strengthened operations in MHCs, further supported by improvement in human resource for health allocation for MHCs in light of expanding health care programs

Contributions

Evaluation of health care programmes, and human resource for health quality improvement needs in the clinical practice of HIV care of MHCs nurses which advocate for specific policy formulations.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Intermediary Organizations for Diaspora Philanthropy: A Systematic Literature Review

Abstract

Diaspora philanthropy describes the phenomenon that diasporas who live away from their home countries remain connected to their homelands and thus are motivated to give back to their countries of origin. The literature on diaspora philanthropy is growing, and multiple types of intermediary organizations have been identified, usually through single case studies. However, there is a need to systematically document the types and characteristics of intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy. This research uses a systematic literature review to define, summarize, and categorize intermediary organizations. Three main types of organizations emerged: nonprofit, government, and for-profit organizations. The nonprofit sector is seen as the primary type and contains five more specific categories of intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy. This research presents the current landscape of intermediary organizations for diaspora philanthropy and paves the way for future research on relevant topics.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Deconcentrating regulation in low- and middle-income country health systems: a proposed ambidextrous solution to problems with professional regulation for doctors and nurses in Kenya and Uganda

Abstract Background

Regulation can improve professional practice and patient care, but is often weakly implemented and enforced in health systems in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Taking a de-centred and frontline perspective, we examine national regulatory actors’ and health professionals’ views and experiences of health professional regulation in Kenya and Uganda and discuss how it might be improved in LMICs more generally.

Methods

We conducted large-scale research on professional regulation for doctors and nurses (including midwives) in Uganda and Kenya during 2019–2021. We interviewed 29 national regulatory stakeholders and 47 subnational regulatory actors, doctors, and nurses. We then ran a national survey of Kenyan and Ugandan doctors and nurses, which received 3466 responses. We thematically analysed qualitative data, conducted an exploratory factor analysis of survey data, and validated findings in four focus group discussions.

Results

Kenyan and Ugandan regulators were generally perceived as resource-constrained, remote, and out of touch with health professionals. This resulted in weak regulation that did little to prevent malpractice and inadequate professional education and training. However, interviewees were positive about online licencing and regulation where they had relationships with accessible regulators. Building on these positive findings, we propose an ambidextrous approach to improving regulation in LMIC health systems, which we term deconcentrating regulation. This involves developing online licencing and streamlining regulatory administration to make efficiency savings, freeing regulatory resources. These resources should then be used to develop connected subnational regulatory offices, enhance relations between regulators and health professionals, and address problems at local level.

Conclusion

Professional regulation for doctors and nurses in Kenya and Uganda is generally perceived as weak. Yet these professionals are more positive about online licencing and regulation where they have relationships with regulators. Building on these positive findings, we propose deconcentrating regulation as a solution to regulatory problems in LMICs. However, we note resource, cultural and political barriers to its effective implementation.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Effects of intensive care unit quality assessment on changes in medical staff in medical institutions and in-hospital mortality

Abstract Background

Quality assessments are being introduced in many countries to improve the quality of care and maintain acceptable quality levels. In South Korea, various quality assessments are being conducted to improve the quality of care, but there is insufficient evidence on intensive care units (ICUs). This study aims to evaluate the impact of ICU quality assessments on the structural indicators in medical institutions and the resulting in-hospital mortality of patients.

Methods

This study used data collected in the 2nd and 3rd ICU quality assessments in 2017 and 2019. A total of 72,879 patients admitted to ICUs were included during this period, with 265 institutions that received both assessments. As for structural indicators, changes in medical personnel and equipment were assessed, and in-hospital deaths were evaluated as patient outcomes. To evaluate the association between medical staff and in-hospital mortality, a generalized estimating equation model was performed considering both hospital and patient variables.

Results

Compared to the second quality evaluation, the number of intensivist physicians and experienced nurses increased in the third quality evaluation; however, there was still a gap in the workforce depending on the type of medical institution. Among all ICU patients admitted during the evaluation period, 12.0% of patients died in the hospital. In-hospital mortality decreased at the 3rd assessment, and hospitals employing intensivist physicians were associated with reduced in-hospital deaths. In addition, an increase in the number of experienced nurses was associated with a decrease in in-hospital mortality, while an increase in the nurse-to-bed ratio increased mortality.

Conclusions

ICU quality assessments improved overall structural indicators, but the gap between medical institutions has not improved and interventions are required to bridge this gap. In addition, it is important to maintain skilled medical personnel to bring about better results for patients, and various efforts should be considered. This requires continuous monitoring and further research on long-term effects.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Health systems' capacity in availability of human resource for health towards implementation of Universal Health Coverage in Kenya.

INTRODUCTION: Kenya faces significant challenges related to health worker shortages, low retention rates, and the equitable distribution of Human Resource for Health (HRH). The Ministry of Health (MOH) in Kenya has established HRH norms and standards that define the minimum requirements for healthcare providers and infrastructure at various levels of the health system. The study assessed on the progress of Universal Health Coverage (UHC) piloting on Human Resource for Health in the country. METHODS: The study utilized a Convergent-Parallel-Mixed-Methods design, incorporating both quantitative and qualitative approaches. The study sampled diverse population groups and randomly selected health facilities. Four UHC pilot counties are paired with two non-UHC pilot counties, one neighboring county and the second county with a geographically distant and does not share a border with any UHC pilot counties. Stratification based on ownership and level was performed, and the required number of facilities per stratum was determined using the square root allocation method. Data on the availability of human resources for health was collected using a customized Kenya Service Availability and Readiness Assessment Mapping (SARAM) tool facilitated by KoBo ToolKitTM open-source software. Data quality checks and validation were conducted, and the HRH general service availability index was measured on availability of Nurses, Clinician, Nutritionist, Laboratory technologist and Pharmacist which is a minimum requirement across all levels of health facilities. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS version 27 and comparisons between UHC pilot counties and non-UHC counties where significance threshold was established at p < 0.05. Qualitative data collected using focus group discussions and in-depth interview guides. Ethical approval and research permits were obtained, and written informed consent was obtained from all participants. RESULTS: The study assessed 746 health facilities with a response rate of 94.3%. Public health facilities accounted for 75% of the sample. The overall healthcare professional availability index score was 17.2%. There was no significant difference in health workers' availability between UHC pilot counties and non-UHC pilot counties at P = 0.834. Public health facilities had a lower index score of 14.7% compared to non-public facilities at 27.0%. Rural areas had the highest staffing shortages, with only 11.1% meeting staffing norms, compared to 31.8% in urban areas and 30.4% in peri-urban areas. Availability of health workers increased with the advancement of The Kenya Essential Package for Health (KEPH Level), with all Level 2 facilities across counties failing to meet MOH staffing norms (0.0%) except Taita Taveta at 8.3%. Among specific cadres, nursing had the highest availability index at 93.2%, followed by clinical officers at 52.3% and laboratory professionals at 55.2%. The least available professions were nutritionists at 21.6% and pharmacist personnel at 33.0%. This result is corroborated by qualitative verbatim. CONCLUSION: The study findings highlight crucial challenges in healthcare professional availability and distribution in Kenya. The UHC pilot program has not effectively enhanced healthcare facilities to meet the standards for staffing, calling for additional interventions. Rural areas face a pronounced shortage of healthcare workers, necessitating efforts to attract and retain professionals in these regions. Public facilities have lower availability compared to private facilities, raising concerns about accessibility and quality of care provided. Primary healthcare facilities have lower availability than secondary facilities, emphasizing the need to address shortages at the community level. Disparities in the availability of different healthcare cadres must be addressed to meet diverse healthcare needs. Overall, comprehensive interventions are urgently needed to improve access to quality healthcare services and address workforce challenges.
Categorías: Investigaciones

How can countries respond to the health and care workforce crisis? Insights from international evidence.

Future global health security requires a health and care workforce (HCWF) that can respond effectively to health crises as well as to changing health needs with ageing populations, a rise in chronic conditions and growing inequality. COVID-19 has drawn attention to an impending HCWF crisis with a large projected shortfall in numbers against need. Addressing this requires countries to move beyond a focus on numbers of doctors, nurses and midwives to consider what kinds of healthcare workers can deliver the services needed; are more likely to stay in country, in rural and remote areas, and in health sector jobs; and what support they need to deliver high-quality services. In this paper, which draws on a Policy Brief prepared for the World Health Organization (WHO) Fifth Global Forum on Human Resources for Health, we review the global evidence on best practices in organising, training, deploying, and managing the HCWF to highlight areas for strategic investments. These include (1). Increasing HCWF diversity to improve the skill-mix and provide culturally competent care; (2). Introducing multidisciplinary teams in primary care; (3). Transforming health professional education with greater interprofessional education; (4). Re-thinking employment and deployment systems to address HCWF shortages; (5). Improving HCWF retention by supporting healthcare workers and addressing migration through destination country policies that limit draining resources from countries with greatest need. These approaches are departures from current norms and hold substantial potential for building a sustainable and responsive HCWF.
Categorías: Investigaciones

On solving a healthcare supplier selection problem using MCDM methods in intuitionistic fuzzy environment

Abstract

Presence of numerous competing suppliers along with conflicting evaluation criteria, increased participation and expectations of the stakeholders having varying interest, uncertainty in demand and supply, and lack and vagueness of information make healthcare supplier selection a challenging task which can be effectively solved with the application of multi-criteria decision making (MCDM) methods in fuzzy environment. This paper proposes a two-stage methodology for solving a supplier selection problem in the Indian healthcare scenario. Four efficient suppliers are first shortlisted from a pool of 25 candidate pharmaceutical suppliers using data envelopment analysis based on nine pivotal financial metrics. In the second stage, three MCDM techniques, in the form of weighted aggregated sum product assessment (WASPAS), combinative distance-based assessment (CODAS) and combined compromise solution (CoCoSo) are individually integrated with intuitionistic fuzzy (IF) set to identify the most apposite healthcare supplier on the basis of five qualitative criteria (cost, delivery time, service, quality and flexibility). It is interestingly noticed that all the adopted MCDM techniques behave similarly in selecting the best supplier in IF environment. A sensitivity analysis with respect to changing criteria weights is also carried out to search out the most robust IF-MCDM method.

Categorías: Investigaciones

What can we learn from general practitioners who left Spain? A mixed methods international study.

BACKGROUND: International mobility of health workforce affects the performance of health systems and has major relevance in human resources for health policy and planning. To date, there has been little research exploring the reasons why general practitioners (GPs) migrate. This mixed methods study aimed to investigate the reasons why Spain-trained GPs migrate and develop GP retention and recruitment health policy recommendations relevant to Spanish primary care. METHODS: The study followed an explanatory sequential mixed methods study design combining surveys with semi-structured interviews and focus groups with GPs who qualified in Spain and were living overseas at the time of the study. The survey data examined the reasons why GPs left Spain and their intention to return and were analysed using quantitative methods. The transcripts from interviews and focus groups centred on GPs' insights to enhance retention and recruitment in Spain and were analysed thematically. RESULTS: The survey had 158 respondents with an estimated 25.4% response rate. Insufficient salary (75.3%), job insecurity and temporality (67.7%), excessive workload (67.7%), poor primary care governance (55.7%), lack of flexibility in the workplace (43.7%) and personal circumstances (43.7%) were the main reasons for leaving Spain. Almost half of the respondents (48.7%) would consider returning to Spanish general practice if their working conditions improved. Interviews and focus groups with respondents (n = 24) pointed towards the need to improve the quality of employment contracts, working conditions, opportunities for professional development, and governance in primary care for effective retention and recruitment. CONCLUSION: Efforts to improve GP retention and recruitment in Spain should focus on salary, job security, flexibility, protected workload, professional development, and governance. We draw ten GP retention and recruitment recommendations expected to inform urgent policy action to tackle existing and predicted GP shortages in Spanish primary care.
Categorías: Investigaciones

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