The impact of human resources for health on the health outcomes of Chinese people

Abstract

Human resources for health (HRH) is a cornerstone in the medical system. This paper combined data envelopment analysis (DEA) with Tobit regression analysis to evaluate the efficiency of health care services in China over the years between 2007 and 2019. Efficiency was first estimated by using DEA with the choice of inputs and outputs being specific to health care services and residents’ health status. Malmquist index model was selected for estimating the changes in total factor productivity of provinces and exploring whether their performance had improved over the years. Tobit regression model was then employed in which the efficiency score obtained from the DEA computations used as the dependent variable, and HRH was chosen as the independent variables. The results showed that all kinds of health personnel had a significantly positive impact on the efficiency, and more importantly, pharmacists played a critical role in affecting both the provincial and national efficiency. Therefore, the health sector should pay more attention to optimizing allocation of HRH and focusing on professional training of clinical pharmacists.

Categorías: Investigaciones

A national analysis of the pharmacy workforce in Indonesia

Abstract Background

Pharmacists play a fundamental role in healthcare systems and achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) through quality primary healthcare service provision. While the World Health Organization (WHO) forecasts a global shortage of health workforce by 2030, mainly affecting low- and middle-income nations (LMICs), limited published literature is found regarding pharmacy workforce capacity in LMICs, including Indonesia. This paper aims to analyse pharmacists’ capacity in Indonesia to identify emerging workforce planning gaps for future workforce planning and policies in Indonesia.

Method

Several data sources were accessed, including a database from the National Pharmacy Committee and the professional leadership body in Indonesia. Descriptive (frequencies, percentages, and mean), correlational and time-series analysis using curve estimation were conducted. Secondary data on the number of programmes, pharmacy students, pharmacy workforce (pharmacists and pharmacy technicians) per province were obtained from the Ministry websites and reports.

Result

There were a total of 77 191 registered pharmacists in Indonesia in 2019. The pharmacists’ pyramid showed a youth bulge as a general indication of market expansion in the education sector correlating to the pharmacy programme’s number and size. There was a variation in pharmacy workforce density and access to pharmacy programmes across islands, which also were strongly correlated. Forecasting estimates that by 2030, women will represent around 86% of pharmacists in Indonesia. More female pharmacists were found working in the hospital and primary healthcare (providing direct services to patients) than male pharmacists. Younger pharmacists worked in the industrial sector, while older pharmacists worked in governmental and educational institutions.

Conclusion

This study signposted workforce planning gaps for policy development in Indonesia, including a need to develop structured training to support early career pharmacists in their practice. There is also a need for better access to professional development programmes designed to support female pharmacists return to the regulated workforce following career breaks. National policy to promote equitable distribution and retention of pharmacists is recommended.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Promoting Person-Centered Care for Health Baccalaureate Students: Piloting an Interprofessional Education Approach to Wound Management.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 26/09/2022 - 05:25
OBJECTIVE: To describe and analyze the implementation of a wound management interprofessional education experience for nursing, podiatry, pharmacy, and exercise and nutrition science health baccalaureate students. The disciplines outside of nursing were invited to join the classes of a wound care elective unit in nursing. METHODS: This study included the development and implementation of a wound care program and observation of all students enrolled in the health disciplines where wound management education was relevant. RESULTS: Results indicated an increase in students' recognition of their roles and the roles of others within an interprofessional healthcare team. Facilitators reported that students learned to share information and work collaboratively to plan care for people with wounds. CONCLUSIONS: The outcomes confirm that the structured wound management program of interprofessional education within a Faculty of Health course promoted student recognition of wound management and the essential shared approach to person-centered care.

Telehealth Interventions for HIV in Low- and Middle-Income Countries

Abstract Purpose of review

This review summarizes technology-based interventions for HIV in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). We highlight potential benefits and challenges to using telehealth in LMICs and propose areas for future study.

Recent findings

We identified several models for using telehealth to expand HIV health care access in LMICs, including telemedicine visits for pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and antiretroviral therapy (ART) services, telementoring programs for providers, and virtual peer-support groups. Emerging data support the acceptability and feasibility of these strategies. However, further investigations are needed to determine whether these models are scalable and sustainable in the face of barriers related to cost, infrastructure, and regulatory approval.

Summary

HIV telehealth interventions may be a valuable approach to addressing gaps along the HIV care cascade in LMICs. Future studies should focus on strategies for expanding existing programs to scale and for assessing long-term clinical outcomes.

Categorías: Investigaciones

A global overview of healthcare workers’ turnover intention amid COVID-19 pandemic: a systematic review with future directions

Abstract Background

Globally, the health workforce has long suffered from labour shortages. This has been exacerbated by the workload increase caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. Major collapses in healthcare systems across the world during the peak of the pandemic led to calls for strategies to alleviate the increasing job attrition problem within the healthcare sector. This turnover may worsen given the overwhelming pressures experienced by the health workforce during the pandemic, and proactive measures should be taken to retain healthcare workers. This review aims to examine the factors affecting turnover intention among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Methods

A mixed studies systematic review was conducted. The PubMed, Embase, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science and PsycINFO databases were searched from January 2020 to March 2022. The Joanna Briggs Institute’s Critical Appraisal Tools and the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool version 2018 were applied by two independent researchers to critically appraise the methodological quality. Findings were synthesised using a convergent integrated approach and categorised thematically.

Results

Forty-three studies, including 39 quantitative, two qualitative and two mixed methods studies were included in this review. Eighteen were conducted in the Middle East, ten in the Americas, nine in the Asia–Pacific region and six in Europe. Nurses (n = 35) were included in the majority of the studies, while physicians (n = 13), allied health workers (n = 11) and healthcare administrative or management staff (n = 7) were included in a smaller proportion. Five themes emerged from the data synthesis: (1) fear of COVID-19 exposure, (2) psychological responses to stress, (3) socio-demographic characteristics, (4) adverse working conditions, and (5) organisational support.

Conclusions

A wide range of factors influence healthcare workers’ turnover intention in times of pandemic. Future research should be more focused on specific factors, such as working conditions or burnout, and specific vulnerable groups, including migrant healthcare workers and healthcare profession minorities, to aid policymakers in adopting strategies to support and incentivise them to retain them in their healthcare jobs.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Comparison of simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interprofessional education in improving the learning outcomes of medical and nursing students: A quasi-experimental study.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 22/09/2022 - 05:21
BACKGROUND: Use of interprofessional education has greatly expanded and is widely used to foster interprofessional collaborative practice competency in health professionals, especially during medical emergencies. Identifying the interprofessional education delivery mode that can maximize learning outcomes within available resources is crucial for achieving the sustainability of an interprofessional education program. OBJECTIVES: To examine the learning outcomes of simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education modules and to analyze the variable costs between these two interprofessional education modules. DESIGN: A prospective quasi-experimental study. SETTING: A medical university in Northern Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: 24 medical students and 48 nursing students enrolled in a 4-week simulation-based interprofessional education or video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education program. METHODS: Students' medical task performance, critical medical task performance, team behavior performance, and interprofessional collaboration attitude were examined at the pretest and posttest by using an objective structured checklist and team performance rating scale with a hands-on simulation model and structured questionnaires. The variable costs for simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education were estimated upon the completion of the course. RESULTS: All learning outcomes significantly improved for both the groups from the pretest to posttest. After the intervention, the simulation-based interprofessional education group exhibited significantly higher scores in medical task performance, critical medical task performance and team behavior performance than the video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education group at the posttest. No significant difference was noted in interprofessional collaboration attitude between the groups. Cost analysis revealed that the simulation-based interprofessional education program was approximately two times more expensive in terms of staffing costs and required 1.3 times greater space charges than the video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education program. CONCLUSION: Both simulation-based interprofessional education and video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education modules effectively improved medical and nursing students' medical task performance, critical medical task performance and team behavior performance. The simulation-based interprofessional education group had more favorable learning outcomes, but the associated costs were higher. Educators should consider both learning outcomes and cost when choosing a design strategy simulation-based interprofessional education vs. video-enhanced interactive discussion interprofessional education for interprofessional education module development.

Teaching staff in interprofessional education: A proposed terminology.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Jue, 22/09/2022 - 05:21
Different terms (e.g., interprofessional, multiprofessional, interdisciplinary) are used in interprofessional education and collaboration without sufficient differentiation or precision in regard to meaning. In recent years academic publications in English and German have contributed to clarifying this issue. However, there are no definitions internationally or in the German-speaking countries (Germany, Austria, Switzerland) specifically referring to the people engaged in teaching interprofessional education. Teaching in interprofessional education has evolved from the traditional role of expert to one of mentor or facilitator. It is also evident that those who teach play a central role in the success of interprofessional courses. While many different designations are used to refer to interprofessional teachers in the relevant literature and in the language of daily use, a uniform and adequate terminology should be used to refer to such teaching staff. Based on literature reviews, this commentary seeks to propose terms for teaching staff active in the area of interprofessional education and thus provide a basis for discussion in the German-speaking countries. Taking the results of the literature analysis and the roles of teachers in interprofessional settings into consideration, we propose that the English term "IP facilitator" (IP for interprofessional) should also be used in the German-speaking world and "facilitateur IP" in the French-speaking world. A French translation is included in attachment 1 to enable broader discussion in Switzerland.

Population health trends analysis and burden of disease profile observed in Sierra Leone from 1990 to 2017

Abstract Background

Sierra Leone, in West Africa, is one of the poorest developing countries in the world. Sierra Leone has experienced several recent challenges namely, a civil war from 1991 to 2002, a massive Ebola outbreak from 2014 to 2016, followed by floods and landslides in 2017.In this study, we quantified the burden of disease in Sierra Leone over a 27-year period, from 1990 to 2017.

Methodology

In this descriptive study, we analysed secondary data from the Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation, Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study. We quantified patterns of burden of disease, injuries, and risk factors in Sierra Leone. We report GBD data and metrics including mortality rates, years of life lost and risk factors for all ages and both sexes from 1990 to 2017.

Results

From 1990 to 2017, trends of mortality rates for all ages and sexes have declined in Sierra Leone although mortality rates remain some of the highest when compared to other developing countries. The burden of communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional (CMNN) diseases are greater than the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) due to the prevalence of endemic diseases in Sierra Leone. The most important CMNNs associated with premature mortality included respiratory infections, neglected tropical diseases, malaria, and HIV-Aids. Life expectancy has increased from 37 to 52 years.

Conclusion

Sierra Leone’s health status is gradually improving following the civil war and Ebola outbreak. Sierra Leone has a double burden of disease with CMNNs leading and NCDs progressively increasing. Despite these challenges, Sierra Leone has promising initiatives and programs pursuing the Universal Health Coverage 2030 Sustainable Developmental Goals Agenda. There is need for accountability of available resources, clear rules and expected roles for non-governmental organisations to ensure a level playing field for all actors to rebuild the health system.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Virtual Campus for Public Health (VCPH): Bringing knowledge to practice

The Virtual Campus for Public Health (VCPH) is the educational platform of the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO). Its objective is to lead strategic collaborative efforts among Member States and other partners to promote the training of human resources for health, for all people everywhere. The VCPH is structured in three nodes (regional, subregional, national) and it responds to the Strategy on Human Resources for Universal Access to Health and Universal Health Coverage. It works in coordination with the technical departments at PAHO, with the PAHO/WHO country offices in the Region, as well as with institutions that work on public health education and training. All VCPH courses are open access for participants and reflect PAHO's technical cooperation areas. The VCPH offers courses in PAHO’s four official languages: English, French, Portuguese, and Spanish.
Categorías: Investigaciones

Rehabilitation workforce descriptors: a scoping review

Abstract Background

A comprehensive, accurate description of workforce capacity is important for health service planning, to ensure that health services meet local needs. In many low- to middle-income countries, the government’s service planning ability is barred by the lack of accurate and/or comprehensively-described workforce data. In these low-resource settings, lack of appropriate planning leads to limited or no access to rehabilitation services. Variability in the definitions and scope of rehabilitation professionals further complicates the understanding of rehabilitation services and how it should be planned and delivered. Another challenge to describing the primary rehabilitation workforce capacity, is the lack of standardised and agreed-upon global metrics. These inconsistencies highlight the need for a comprehensive understanding of current practices, which can offer guidance to countries wishing to describe their rehabilitation workforce. This study aimed to scope the range of descriptors and metrics used to describe the rehabilitation workforce and to compare the workforce across countries that used similar descriptors in published reports.

Methods

A scoping review was conducted according to the five-step framework first developed by Arksey and O’Malley. The review included a broad search of literature regarding the rehabilitation workforce and how countries quantify and describe the rehabilitation workforce.

Results

Nineteen studies on rehabilitation workforce capacity were identified. All but one (a cross-sectional study) were database reviews. The main descriptors and indicators used to describe the rehabilitation workforce capacity were profession type, age, gender, distributions between urban/rural, level of care, and private/public sectors, absolute count totals, and population-adjusted ratios.

Conclusion

This scoping review provided an overview of descriptors and indicators used to describe the rehabilitation workforce capacity internationally. The study is a first step towards developing standardised descriptors and metrics to quantify the rehabilitation workforce capacity, that will allow for comparison between different settings.

Trial registration

This scoping review protocol has been registered with the Open Science Framework (http://osf.10/7h6xz).

Categorías: Investigaciones

A Novel Interprofessional Education and Supervision Student Placement Model: Student and Clinical Educator Perspectives and Experiences.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 16/09/2022 - 05:13
Interprofessional student placements can not only cater to the added pressures on student placement numbers but can also enhance the work readiness of new graduates. For rural areas, there is a potential for interprofessional student placements to attract the future healthcare workforce. However, tried and tested models of interprofessional placements in rural areas backed up by rigorous evaluation, remain scarce. The Rural Interprofessional Education and Supervision (RIPES) model was developed, implemented, and evaluated across four rural health services in Queensland to address this gap. Students from two or more professions undertook concurrent placements at RIPES sites, with a placement overlap period of at least five weeks. Eleven focus groups (n = 58) with clinical educators (CEs) and students were conducted to explore student and clinical educator experiences and perspectives. Content analysis of focus group data resulted in the development of the following categories: value of the RIPES placement model, unintended benefits to CEs, work units and rural areas, tension between uni-professional and IPE components, and sustainability considerations. Students and CEs alike valued the learning which arose from participation in the model and the positive flow-on effects to both patient care and work units. This unique study was undertaken in response to previous calls to address a gap in interprofessional education models in rural areas. It involved students from multiple professions and universities, explored perspectives and experiences from multiple stakeholders, and followed international best practice interprofessional education research recommendations. Findings can inform the future use and sustainability of the RIPES model.

Components of interprofessional education programs in neonatal medicine: A focused BEME review: BEME Guide No. 73.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Vie, 16/09/2022 - 05:13
BACKGROUND: Care delivery in neonatology is dependent on an interprofessional team. Collaborative learning and education amongst professionals can lead to successful management of critically ill patients. This focused BEME review synthesized the components, outcomes, and impact of such interprofessional education (IPE) programs in neonatal medicine. METHODS: The authors systematically searched four online databases and hand-searched MedEdPublish up to 10 September 2020. Two authors independently screened titles, abstracts, full-texts, performed data extraction and risk of bias assessment related to study methodology and reporting. Discrepancies were resolved by a third author. We reported our findings based on BEME guidance and the STORIES (STructured apprOach to the Reporting in health education of Evidence Synthesis) statement. RESULTS: We included 17 studies on IPE in neonatal medicine. Most studies were from North America with varying learners, objectives, instruction, and observed outcomes. Learners represented nurses, respiratory therapists, neonatal nurse practitioners, patient care technicians, parents, early interventionists, physicians, and medical trainees amongst others. Risk of bias assessment in reporting revealed poor reporting of resources and instructor training. Bias assessment for study methodology noted moderate quality evidence with validity evidence as the weakest domain. IPE instruction strategies included simulation with debriefing, didactics, and online instruction. Most studies reported level 1 Kirkpatrick outcomes (76%) and few reported level 3 or 4 outcomes (23%). Challenges include buy-in from leadership and the negative influence of hierarchy amongst learners. CONCLUSIONS: This review highlights IPE program components within neonatal medicine and exemplary practices including a multimodal instructional approach, asynchronous instruction, an emphasis on teamwork, and elimination of hierarchy amongst learners. We identified a lack of reporting on program development and instructor training. Future work should address long term knowledge and skill retention and impact on patient outcomes and organizations.

The Development and Validation of a Professional Development Program for Health Professional Educators in Ethiopian Higher Education Context

Abstract

Despite the presence of a common agreement on the importance of integrating professional development (PD) for instructors in higher education (HE), the level of progress made in that regard varies greatly across HE systems around the world. Part of the variation was due to the lack of comprehensive theories and guidelines that leverage efforts to integrate PD issues into HE system. Also, there is limited research regarding the development and revision of PD programs for instructors of health sciences in HE setting. The limited studies primarily lack a comprehensive or all-encompassing framework that capture the complexities of the program development and validation process. Rather, they are essentially impact evaluation studies, examining the short-term and long-term benefits of the programs under studies. This study offers a theoretical rationale and a three-step framework for PD program development and review in HE through presenting a case study of an innovative PD program in the Ethiopian public university context. A three-step approach that consists of curriculum development, an iterative research–based review, and collaborative revision and validation is recommended in this study, to promote a commitment to systematic planning and research-based review and revision in a PD of instructors in HE in Ethiopia and beyond.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The roles of physician associates and advanced nurse practitioners in the National Health Service in the UK: a scoping review and narrative synthesis

Abstract Background

Mid-level practitioners (MLPs), including physician associates (PAs) and advanced nurse practitioners (ANPs), have emerged to address workforce shortages in the UK and perform specific roles in relation to population needs. This has resulted in new ways of working and changes to established professional hierarchies. We conducted a study to investigate the career development, competencies, effectiveness, perceptions, and regulation of PAs and ANPs, with the aim of understanding ways to effectively integrate MLPs into the NHS workforce.

Methods

We conducted a systematic scoping review following PRISMA guidelines. Embase, Medline, the Cochrane database, Pubmed, and CINAHL databases were searched, using terms relating to PAs and ANPs in the UK. A total of 128 studies (60 on PAs and 68 on ANPs) were included in the final analysis. A narrative synthesis, guided by the pre-defined themes and emerging themes, was conducted to bring together the findings.

Results

PAs are educated on a medical model with basic medical skills but lack formal professional regulation and do not have prescribing rights. ANPs are educated on a nurse model with enhanced skills that depend on roles within specific specialities, and their governance is mostly employer-led. PAs are primarily employed in secondary care. ANPs are employed widely in both primary and secondary care. No defined career progression exists for PAs. In contrast, becoming an ANP is a form of career progression within nursing. Both roles were regarded as cost-effective in comparison to doctors performing simple tasks. PAs were less understood compared to ANPs and received a mixed reception from colleagues, which sometimes undermined their professional identity, whereas ANPs were mostly welcomed by colleagues.

Conclusions

Potential ways to better integrate PAs and ANPs into the NHS workforce include further initiatives by regulatory bodies and the NHS to create more awareness and clearer role definitions for MLPs, outline potential for career progression, offer transparency with regard to remuneration, and introduction of prescribing rights. Future research might include more cadres of MLPs and explore the international literature.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Delivery of interprofessional education through a co-curricular journal reviewing medical literature.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 12/09/2022 - 05:16
BACKGROUND: This study's objective was to determine if student participation in a co-curricular drug information journal would increase interprofessional education (IPE) competency as measured by a validated survey tool. INTERPROFESSIONAL EDUCATION ACTIVITY: To encourage interprofessional collaboration, students from diverse professional backgrounds were split into groups to conduct a literature review, draft an article on a topic of their choice, obtain revisions through formal review, and publish their article in a student-led journal, The ARxCH (The Annual Review of Changes in Healthcare). To measure IPE competency, students completed the validated Interprofessional Collaborative Competencies Attainment Survey (ICCAS) at the beginning and end of the study to measure changes in IPE competency scores. DISCUSSION: Results of the ICCAS survey found that 15 of the 17 IPE competency questions showed significant positive changes from the pre-survey to the post-survey. These findings suggest that The ARxCH publishing process increased IPE competencies when incorporating students from a variety of healthcare backgrounds and leveraging this novel IPE approach of formal manuscript preparation and group discussion. IMPLICATIONS: This student-led journal could serve as a prototype for future longitudinal activities designed to enhance student IPE competence through co-curricular activities.

Incorporation of Child & Adolescent Mental Health Standardized Patient Simulations to Provide Interprofessional Education for Graduate Students.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 12/09/2022 - 05:16
Substantial need exists to prepare healthcare professionals to manage the increasing prevalence of mental health conditions, specifically in the child and adolescent population. The primary purpose of this study was to enhance knowledge of health care professionals in the assessment and treatment of common mental health disorders in children and adolescents through the delivery of workshops that provided both didactic and simulation training. This study utilized a repeated measures, quasi-experimental design. A total of 131 students representing counseling, pharmacy, PMHNPs and FNPs participated in the four workshops. Positive changes in the perceptions of interdisciplinary teamwork importance were noted.

Interdisciplinary interprofessional education using an online learning environment called values exchange: A qualitative investigation.

Search "Educación Interprofesional" - Lun, 12/09/2022 - 05:16
INTRODUCTION: Interprofessional education (IPE) is implemented throughout the curricula of student healthcare professions as it is understood to provide positive impact on patient outcomes in the clinical environment. There are different methods to provide IPE such as through online learning or traditional face-to-face methods. However, there is a lack of research surrounding the use of Online Learning Environments (OLEs) to teach IPE. METHODS: In a pilot study, seventy-one undergraduate radiography students and twenty Master of Pharmacy students engaged in an ethical scenario using the OLE, Values Exchange (Vx). Following the activity, students were invited to complete an open-ended response question. Fourteen students responded and these data were used for qualitative analysis. RESULTS: A thematic analysis of the students' open-ended responses found the emergence of three major themes, namely; understanding the roles of other healthcare professionals, developing self-reflection skills and, preparing for the clinical environment. Students suggested that additional time allocated for undertaking the study would benefit their engagement in the activity. Students would benefit from added engagement in the Vx task in both the short and long term for IPE. CONCLUSION: Students are receptive in utilising contemporary approaches such as OLEs in furthering their IPE. Positive interpretations and suggestions by both radiography and pharmacy students in this study demonstrate how Vx as an OLE teaching tool can be used effectively. OLEs can overcome barriers that exist in face-to-face education experiences. OLEs should be considered for greater use within academic curricula of healthcare professions, but only if they have been evaluated for effectiveness.

Quality of emergency obstetric and newborn care services in Wolaita Zone, Southern Ethiopia.

BACKGROUND: Globally, nearly 295,000 women die every year during and following pregnancy and childbirth. Emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmONC) can avert 75% of maternal mortality if all mothers get quality healthcare. Improving maternal health needs identification and addressing of barriers that limit access to quality maternal health services. Hence, this study aimed to assess the quality of EmONC service and its predictors in Wolaita Zone, southern Ethiopia. METHODOLOGY: A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted in 14 health facilities. A facility audit was conducted on 14 health facilities, and 423 women were randomly selected to participate in observation of care and exit interview. The Open Data Kit (ODK) platform and Stata version 17 were used for data entry and analysis, respectively. Frequencies and summary statistics were used to describe the study population. Simple and multiple linear regressions were done to identify candidate and predictor variables of service quality. Coefficients with 95% confidence intervals were used to declare the significance and strength of association. Input, process, and output quality indices were created by calculating the means of standard items available or actions performed by each category and were used to describe the quality of EmONC. RESULT: The mean input, process, and output EmONC services qualities were 74.2, 69.4, and 79.6%, respectively. Of the study participants, 59.2% received below 75% of the standard clinical actions (observed quality) of EmONC services. Women's educational status (B = 5.35, 95% C.I: 0.56, 10.14), and (B = 8.38, 95% C.I: 2.92, 13.85), age (B = 3.86, 95% C.I: 0.39, 7.33), duration of stay at the facility (B = 3.58, 95% C.I: 2.66, 4.9), number of patients in the delivery room (B = - 4.14, 95% C.I: - 6.14, - 2.13), and care provider's experience (B = 1.26, 95% C.I: 0.83, 1.69) were independent predictors of observed service quality. CONCLUSION: The EmONC services quality was suboptimal in Wolaita Zone. Every three-in-five women received less than three-fourths of the standard clinical actions. The health system, care providers, and other stakeholders should emphasize improving the quality of care by availing medical infrastructure, adhering to standard procedures, enhancing human resources for health, and providing standard care regardless of women's characteristics.
Categorías: Investigaciones

A qualitative exploration of Ugandan mental health care workers’ perspectives and experiences on sexual and reproductive health of people living with mental illness in Uganda

Abstract Background

People with Mental Illness experience vast sexual and reproductive health challenges due to the affected mental health. Globally, prevalence of mental illness is on the rise with subsequent increase in the number of people with sexual and reproductive challenges warranting urgent public health intervention. However, information on the perceptions and experiences of mental health workers, the key health care providers for this population is generally lacking yet it’s essential for formulation of appropriate policies and public health interventions.

Aim

To explore Ugandan mental health care worker’s perspectives and experiences on the sexual and reproductive health of people living with mental illness in Uganda in order to generate recommendations to the ministry of health on how it can be improved.

Materials and methods

Qualitative study design was employed with utilization of phone call semi-structured in-depth interviews to collect data from 14 mental health workers from Uganda’s National mental referral hospital, Butabika. Purposive sampling and convenience recruitment was done and the collected data was analyzed using Thematic content analysis.

Results

Four themes were generated which included people with Mental illness having normal sexual needs, mental illness effect on sexuality and relationships, practices for safeguarding sexuality of people with mental illness and the barriers encountered in the provision of sexual and reproductive health services at a mental hospital.

Conclusion

People with mental illness experience a multitude of sexual and reproductive health challenges that need public health interventions. However, the integration of sexual and reproductive health services in a mental hospital are not yet successful making people with mental illness to remain with unaddressed health challenges. Policies should therefore be developed and implemented to ensure successful integration of sexual and reproductive health at all mental health service care provision points.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Nigerian stakeholders' perceptions of a pilot tier accreditation system for Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors to expand access to family planning services.

BACKGROUND: Community Pharmacists (CPs) and Patent and Proprietary Medicine Vendors (PPMVs) are often the first point of care for many Nigerians, and when sufficiently trained, they contribute to the expansion of family planning services. Nigeria's task shifting policy and existing regulatory and licensing bodies provide the enabling environment for PPMVs to be stratified and trained. This study explored the perceptions of stakeholders toward the pilot three-tier accreditation system instituted by the Pharmacists Council of Nigeria with support from the IntegratE project. METHODS: Two rounds of qualitative phone interviews were conducted among stakeholders in Kaduna and Lagos states in 2020 and 2021. In addition, there were two rounds of phone interviews with CPs and PPMVs (program recipients) from Lagos and Kaduna states. All participants were purposively selected, based on their involvement in the IntegratE project activities. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and coded using Atlas.ti software. Thematic analysis was conducted. RESULTS: Fifteen stakeholders and 28 program recipients and 12 stakeholders and 30 program recipients were interviewed during the first and second rounds of data collection respectively. The data are presented around three main themes: 1) the pilot three-tier accreditation system; 2) enabling environment; and 3) implementation challenges. The accreditation system that allows for the stratification and training of PPMVs to provide family planning services was perceived in a positive light by majority of participants. The integrated supportive supervision team that included representation from the licensing and regulatory body was seen as a strength. However, it was noted that the licensing process needs to be more effective. Implementation challenges that need to be addressed prior to scale up include bottlenecks in licensing procedures and the deep-rooted mistrust between CPs and PPMVs. CONCLUSION: Scale up of the three-tier accreditation system has the potential to expand access to family planning services in Nigeria. In other resource-poor settings where human resources for health are in short supply and where drug shops are ubiquitous, identifying drug shop owners, training them to offer a range of family planning services, and providing the enabling environment for them to function may help to improve access to family planning services.
Categorías: Investigaciones

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