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Gendered health systems: evidence from low- and middle-income countries.

Health Res Policy Syst;16(1): 58, 2018 Jul 06. . [Artigo]

Categorías: Investigaciones

Curriculum and training needs of mid-level health workers in Africa: a situational review from Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda

Abstract Background

Africa’s health systems rely on services provided by mid-level health workers (MLWs). Investment in their training is worthwhile since they are more likely to be retained in underserved areas, require shorter training courses and are less dependent on technology and investigations in their clinical practice than physicians. Their training programs and curricula need up-dating to be relevant to their practice and to reflect advances in health professional education.

This study was conducted to review the training and curricula of MLWs in Kenya, Nigeria, South Africa and Uganda, to ascertain areas for improvement.

Methods

Key informants from professional associations, regulatory bodies, training institutions, labour organisations and government ministries were interviewed in each country. Policy documents and training curricula were reviewed for relevant content. Feedback was provided through stakeholder and participant meetings and comments recorded. 421 District managers and 975 MLWs from urban and rural government district health facilities completed self-administered questionnaires regarding MLW training and performance.

Results

Qualitative data indicated commonalities in scope of practice and in training programs across the four countries, with a focus on basic diagnosis and medical treatment. Older programs tended to be more didactic in their training approach and were often lacking in resources. Significant concerns regarding skills gaps and quality of training were raised. Nevertheless, quantitative data showed that most MLWs felt their basic training was adequate for the work they do. MLWs and district managers indicated that training methods needed updating with additional skills offered. MLWs wanted their training to include more problem-solving approaches and practical procedures that could be life-saving.

Conclusions

MLWs are essential frontline workers in health services, not just a stop-gap. In Kenya, Nigeria and Uganda, their important role is appreciated by health service managers. At the same time, significant deficiencies in training program content and educational methodologies exist in these countries, whereas programs in South Africa appear to have benefited from their more recent origin. Improvements to training and curricula, based on international educational developments as well as the local burden of disease, will enable them to function with greater effectiveness and contribute to better quality care and outcomes.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Effectiveness of peer support to increase uptake of retinal examination for diabetic retinopathy: study protocol for the DURE pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga, Kenya

Abstract Background

All patients with diabetes are at risk of developing diabetic retinopathy (DR), a progressive and potentially blinding condition. Early treatment of DR prevents visual impairment and blindness. The natural history of DR is that it is asymptomatic until the advanced stages, thus annual retinal examination is recommended for early detection. Previous studies show that the uptake of regular retinal examination among people living with diabetes (PLWD) is low. In the Uptake of Retinal Examination in Diabetes (DURE) study, we will investigate the effectiveness of a complex intervention delivered within diabetes support groups to increase uptake of retinal examination.

Methods

The DURE study will be a two-arm pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial in Kirinyaga County, Kenya. Diabetes support groups will be randomly assigned to either the intervention or usual care conditions in a 1:1 ratio. The participants will be 700 PLWD who are members of support groups in Kirinyaga. To reduce contamination, the unit of randomization will be the support group. Peer supporters in the intervention arm will receive training to deliver the intervention. The intervention will include monthly group education on DR and individual member reminders to take the eye examination. The effectiveness of this intervention plus usual care will be compared to usual care practices alone. Participant data will be collected at baseline. The primary outcome is the proportion of PLWD who take up the eye examination at six months. Secondary outcomes include the characteristics of participants and peer supporters associated with uptake of eye examination for DR. Intention-to-treat analysis will be used to evaluate the primary and secondary outcomes.

Discussion

Eye care programs need evidence of the effectiveness of peer supporter-led health education to improve attendance to retinal screening for the early detection of DR in an African setting. Given that the intervention combines standardization and flexibility, it has the potential to be adopted in other settings and to inform policies to promote DR screening.

Trial registration

Pan African Clinical Trial Registry PACTR201707002430195, registered 25 July 2017, www.pactr.org

Categorías: Investigaciones

The development of a training course for clubfoot treatment in Africa: learning points for course development

Abstract Background

Clubfoot is a common congenital musculoskeletal disorder that causes mobility impairment. There is a lack of trained mid-level personnel to provide clubfoot treatment in Africa and there is no standard training course. This prospective study describes the collaborative and participatory approach to the development of a training course for the treatment of clubfoot in children in resource constrained settings.

Methods

We used a systems approach to evaluate the development of the training course.

Inputs: The research strategy included a review of context and available training materials, and the collection of data on current training practices. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven expert clubfoot trainers. A survey of 32 international and regional trainers was undertaken to inform practical issues. The data were used to develop a framework for training with advice from two technical groups, consisting of regional and international stakeholders and experts.

Process: A consensus approach was undertaken during workshops, meetings and the sharing of documents. The design process for the training materials took twenty-four months and was iterative. The training materials were piloted nine times between September 2015 and February 2017. Processes and materials were reviewed and adapted according to feedback after each pilot.

Results

Fifty-one regional trainers from Africa (18 countries), 21 international experts (11 countries), 113 local providers of clubfoot treatment (Ethiopia, Rwanda and Kenya) and local organising teams were involved in developing the curriculum and pilot testing. The diversity of the two technical advisory groups allowed a wide range of contributions to the collaboration.

Output: The resulting curriculum and content comprised a two day basic training and a two day advanced course. The basic course utilised adult learning techniques for training novice providers in the treatment of idiopathic clubfoot in children under two years old. The advanced course builds on these principles.

Conclusion

Formative research that included mixed methods (both qualitative and quantitative) was important in the development of an appropriate training course. The process documentation from this study provides useful information to assist planning of medical training programmes and may serve as a model for the development of other courses.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Evaluation of distance learning IMCI training program: the case of Tanzania

Abstract Background

The standard 11-days IMCI (Integrated Management of Childhood Illness) training course (standard IMCI) has faced barriers such as high cost to scale up. Distance learning IMCI training program was developed as an alternative to the standard IMCI course. This article presents the evaluation results of the implementation of distance learning IMCI training program in Tanzania.

Methods

From December 2012 to end of June 2015, a total of 4806 health care providers (HCP) were trained on distance learning IMCI from 1427 health facilities {HF) in 68 districts in Tanzania. Clinical assessments were done at the end of each course and on follow up visits of health facilities 4 to 6 weeks after training. The results of those assessments are used to compare performance of health care providers trained in distance learning IMCI with those trained in the standard IMCI course. Statistical analysis is done by comparing proportions of those with appropriate performances using four WHO priority performance indicators as well as cost of conducting the courses. In addition, the perspectives of health care providers, IMCI course facilitators, policy makers and partners were gathered using either focussed group discussions or structured questionnaires.

Results

Distance learning IMCI allowed clusters of training courses to take place in parallel, allowing rapid expansion of IMCI coverage. Health care providers trained in distance learning IMCI performed equally well as those trained in the standard IMCI course in assessing Main Symptoms, treating sick children and counselling caretakers appropriately. They performed better in assessing Danger Signs. Distance learning IMCI gave a 70% reduction in cost of conducting the training courses.

Conclusion

Distance learning IMCI is an alternative to scaling up IMCI as it provides an effective option with significant cost reduction in conducting training courses.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Taller: Paradigmas Éticos y Políticas de la Psicología en El Salvador

Noticias - El Salvador - Jue, 12/07/2018 - 16:22

El Consejo Superior de Salud Pública y la Junta de Vigilancia de la Profesión de Psicología, invita al taller denominado: "Paradigmas Éticos y Políticas de la Psicología en El Salvador", dirigido a Profesionales graduados y egresados de Psicología en el cual se desarrollarán los siguientes temas: 

  1. Código de Salud y la LDDPPS.
  2. Código de Ética y desafíos del ejercicio Profesional.
  3. Incidencia de la Política y la Ley de Salud Mental en la población salvadoreña.

El cual se llevará a cabo:

Día: Jueves 26 de julio de 2018.

Hora: 8:00 am a 12:00 m

Lugar: Sala de Conferencias del CSSP.

Evaluating the role of clinical officers in providing reproductive health services in Kenya

Abstract Background

Most sub-Saharan African countries have too few reproductive health (RH) specialists, resulting in high RH-related mortality and morbidity. In Kenya, task sharing in RH began in 2002, with the training of clinical officer(s)–reproductive health (CORH). Little is known about them and the extent of their role in the health system.

Methods

In 2016, we conducted a retrospective, quantitative two-stage study in Kenya to evaluate the use of CORH and 28 of their curriculum-derived RH competencies, to determine their contribution to expanded access to RH care. CORH were surveyed, using structured questionnaires and telephone interviews. Data on the frequency with which CORH used specified competencies were collected from health records in selected facilities.

Results

Forty-nine of all 104 CORH participated in the survey (47%). Forty-eight (98%) had worked in the clinical area, and 79% were still engaging in clinical work. All 48 worked in emergency obstetrics, emergency gynaecology, and nonemergency RH, and 38 (79%) filled clinical leadership positions. Vasectomy was least performed, by only 9 (18%) CORH. All other competencies were applied by at least half of the CORH, and 22 competencies by more than three quarters. Forty-one (84%) CORH performed caesarean section (CS). Teaching and management were other common responsibilities.

Data were collected from 12 facilities and analysed for 11. They generally confirmed the initial survey findings: CORH worked as obstetrics and gynaecology consultants and used most of their competencies. Analysis was based on 118 months of theatre records. CORH made significant contributions to their facility’s capacity to perform RH surgery: most respondents performed at least 25% of these surgeries. They performed an average of six CS per month and more than 25% of perineal tear repairs (33%), uterus repairs (33%), manual placenta removals (26%), bilateral tubal ligations (39%), and cervical cancer staging (27%). Some experienced CORH conducted procedures beyond their training.

Conclusions

CORH expand access to emergency RH care. Their contributions span all areas of obstetric and gynaecological care, mentoring new health workers and expanding their scope of practice. However, the generally poor status of records documenting healthcare provision limits their usability in evaluation and research.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Interprofessional team member’s satisfaction: a mixed methods study of a Chilean hospital

Abstract Introduction

The health organizations of today are highly complex and specialized. Given this scenario, there is a need for health professionals to work collaboratively within interprofessional work teams to ensure quality and safe care. To strengthen interprofessional teamwork, it is imperative that health organizations enhance strategic human resources management by promoting team member satisfaction.

Objective

To analyze the satisfaction of members in interprofessional teams and to explore interpersonal relationships, leadership, and team climate in a hospital context.

Methodology

This study is an explanatory sequential mixed methods (quantitative/qualitative) study of 53 teams (409 professionals) at a university hospital in Santiago, Chile. The first phase involved quantitative surveys with team members examining team satisfaction, transformational leadership, and team climate. Social network analysis was used to identify interactions among team members (cohesion and centrality). The second phase involved interviews with 15 professionals belonging to teams with the highest and lowest team satisfaction scores. Findings of both phases were integrated.

Results

Significant associations were found among variables, and the linear regression model showed that team climate (β = 0.26) was a better predictor of team satisfaction than team leadership (β = 0.17). Registered nurse was perceived as the profession with the highest score on the transformational leadership measure (mean = 64), followed by the physician (mean = 33). Team networks with the highest and lowest score of team satisfaction showed differences in cohesion and centrality measures. Analysis of interviews identified five themes: attributes of interprofessional work; collaboration, communication, and social interaction; interprofessional team innovation; shared leadership; and interpersonal relationship interface work/social. Integration of findings revealed that team member satisfaction requires participation and communication, common goals and commitment for patient-centered care, clear roles and objectives to support collaborative work, and the presence of a transformational leader to strengthen well-being, dialog, and innovation.

Conclusions

Results have the potential to contribute to the planning and decision-making in the field of human resources, providing elements to promote the management of health teams and support team member satisfaction. In turn, this could lead to job permanence especially where the local health needs are more urgent.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Gender-based analysis of factors affecting junior medical students’ career selection: addressing the shortage of surgical workforce in Rwanda

Abstract Background

There is a strong need for expanding surgical workforce in low- and middle-income countries. However, the number of medical students selecting surgical careers is not sufficient to meet this need. In Rwanda, there is an additional gender gap in speciality selection. Our study aims to understand the early variables involved in junior medical students’ preference of specialisation with a focus on gender disparities.

Methods

We performed a cross-sectional survey of medical students during their clinical rotation years at the University of Rwanda. Demographics, specialisation preference, and factors involved in that preference were obtained using questionnaires and analysed using descriptive statistics and odds ratios.

Results

One hundred eighty-one respondents participated in the study (49.2% response rate) with a female-to-male ratio of 1 to 2.5. Surgery was the preferred speciality for 46.9% of male participants, and obstetrics/gynaecology for 29.4% of females. The main selection criteria for those who had already decided on surgery as a career included intellectual challenge (60.0%), interaction with residents (52.7%), and core clerkship experience (41.8%) for male participants and interaction with residents (57.1%), intellectual challenge (52.4%), and core clerkship experience (52.4%) for female participants. Females were more likely than males to join surgery based on perceived research opportunities (OR 2.7, p = 0.04). Male participants were more likely than their female participants to drop selection of surgery as a speciality when an adverse interaction with a resident was encountered (OR 0.26, p = 0.03).

Conclusion

This study provides insight into factors that guide Rwandan junior medical students’ speciality preference. Medical students are more likely to consider surgical careers when exposed to positive clerkship experiences that provide intellectual challenges, as well as focused mentorship that facilitates effective research opportunities. Ultimately, creating a comprehensive curriculum that supports students’ preferences may help encourage their selection of surgical careers.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Private retail drug shops: what they are, how they operate, and implications for health care delivery in rural Uganda

Abstract Background

Retail drug shops play a significant role in managing pediatric fevers in rural areas in Uganda. Targeted interventions to improve drug seller practices require understanding of the retail drug shop market and motivations that influence practices. This study aimed at describing the operational environment in relation to the Uganda National Drug Authority guidelines for setup of drug shops; characteristics, and dispensing practices of private retail drug shops in managing febrile conditions among under-five children in rural western Uganda.

Methods

Cross sectional survey of 74 registered drug shops, observation checklist, and 428 exit interviews using a semi-structured questionnaire with care-seekers of children under five years of age, who sought care at drug shops during the survey period. The survey was conducted in Mbarara and Bushenyi districts, South Western Uganda, in May 2013.

Results

Up to 90 and 79% of surveyed drug shops in Mbarara and Bushenyi, largely operate in premises that meet National Drug Authority requirements for operational suitability and ensuring medicines safety and quality. Drug shop attendants had some health or medical related training with 60% in Mbarara and 59% in Bushenyi being nurses or midwives. The rest were clinical officers, pharmacists. The most commonly stocked medicines at drug shops were Paracetamol, Quinine, Cough syrup, ORS/Zinc, Amoxicillin syrup, Septrin® syrup, Artemisinin-based combination therapies, and multivitamins, among others. Decisions on what medicines to stock were influenced by among others: recommended medicines from Ministry of Health, consumer demand, most profitable medicines, and seasonal disease patterns. Dispensing decisions were influenced by: prescriptions presented by client, patients’ finances, and patient preferences, among others. Most drug shops surveyed had clinical guidelines, iCCM guidelines, malaria and diarrhea treatment algorithms and charts as recommended by the Ministry of Health. Some drug shops offered additional services such as immunization and sold non-medical goods, as a mechanism for diversification.

Conclusion

Most drug shops premises adhered to the recommended guidelines. Market factors, including client demand and preferences, pricing and profitability, and seasonality largely influenced dispensing and stocking practices. Improving retail drug shop practices and quality of services, requires designing and implementing both supply-side and demand side strategies.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Gendered health systems: evidence from low- and middle-income countries

Abstract Background

Gender is often neglected in health systems, yet health systems are not gender neutral. Within health systems research, gender analysis seeks to understand how gender power relations create inequities in access to resources, the distribution of labour and roles, social norms and values, and decision-making. This paper synthesises findings from nine studies focusing on four health systems domains, namely human resources, service delivery, governance and financing. It provides examples of how a gendered and/or intersectional gender approach can be applied by researchers in a range of low- and middle-income settings (Cambodia, Zimbabwe, Uganda, India, China, Nigeria and Tanzania) to issues across the health system and demonstrates that these types of analysis can uncover new and novel ways of viewing seemingly intractable problems.

Methods

The research used a combination of mixed, quantitative, qualitative and participatory methods, demonstrating the applicability of diverse research methods for gender and intersectional analysis. Within each study, the researchers adapted and applied a variety of gender and intersectional tools to assist with data collection and analysis, including different gender frameworks. Some researchers used participatory tools, such as photovoice and life histories, to prompt deeper and more personal reflections on gender norms from respondents, whereas others used conventional qualitative methods (in-depth interviews, focus group discussion). Findings from across the studies were reviewed and key themes were extracted and summarised.

Results

Five core themes that cut across the different projects were identified and are reported in this paper as follows: the intersection of gender with other social stratifiers; the importance of male involvement; the influence of gendered social norms on health system structures and processes; reliance on (often female) unpaid carers within the health system; and the role of gender within policy and practice. These themes indicate the relevance of and need for gender analysis within health systems research.

Conclusion

The implications of the diverse examples of gender and health systems research highlighted indicate that policy-makers, health practitioners and others interested in enhancing health system research and delivery have solid grounds to advance their enquiry and that one-size-fits-all heath interventions that ignore gender and intersectionality dimensions require caution. It is essential that we build upon these insights in our efforts and commitment to move towards greater equity both locally and globally.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Midwifery matters

Publication date: Available online 3 July 2018
Source:Midwifery

Author(s): Suzanne Stalls







Categorías: Investigaciones

Towards a health-enabling working environment - developing and testing interventions to decrease HIV and TB stigma among healthcare workers in the Free State, South Africa: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

Abstract Background

Occupational exposure to tuberculosis (TB) constitutes a major health risk for healthcare workers (HCWs). The HIV epidemic equally affects the workforce because of the mutually reinforcing epidemiology of HIV and TB. Stigmas associated with HIV and TB have become so intricately entangled that they stop some HCWs from seeking care in a context where serious shortages in human resources for health besiege public health facilities. It is thus imperative to research, as well as attempt to tackle, HIV and TB stigma among HCWs. But little has been done internationally—and nationally, only our own exploratory studies. Our project aims to address this by (1) scientifically assessing the extent and sources of HIV and TB-related stigma among HCWs and (2) developing and testing evidence-based, stigma-reduction interventions in public hospitals in the Free State Province of South Africa.

Methods/design

The research follows a stratified cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) design. Pre intervention, a self-administered questionnaire with the pilot study’s validated stigma scales is used to measure stigma and other key variables among randomly selected HCWs in eight hospitals—stratified by size and district and then randomly allocated to four intervention and four control sites. Interventions comprise HIV- and TB-stigma reduction activities—mainly Social and Behavioural Change Communication (SBCC) interventions—at three social-ecology levels (individual, community, and socio-structural). An outside assessor will appraise the trial mid-way through implementation. Post intervention, all baseline respondents will be followed up to complete the baseline questionnaire with additional items on interventions. Qualitative data will be collected to better understand HIV and TB stigma and explore if, and how, interventions impact stigma levels in the workplace.

Discussion

The study regards as HCWs all staff, working in all different types of jobs, at all levels in the hospitals. Thus, the research addresses HIV and TB stigma across the whole workforce and the entire workplace. In doing so it will (1) generate essential information on stigma among HCWs and (2) implement stigma-reduction interventions that are innovative yet replicable, and potentially beneficial in addressing a pernicious human-rights-based issue.

Trial registration

South African National Clinical Trials Register, registration ID: DOH-27-1115-5204. Prospectively registered on 26 August 2015.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Diplomado de Legislación en Salud

Noticias - El Salvador - Lun, 02/07/2018 - 11:22

Con el objetivo de desarrollar competencias en los profesionales y personal vinculado al área de la salud, para aplicar la normativa de salud en el ámbito en el cual se desempeñan, el Consejo Superior de Salud Pública por medio de la Unidad de Educación Permanente en Salud ofrece: "Diplomado de Legislación en Salud" el cual dará inicio el 17 de agosto de 2018, dirigido a profesionales de las ciencias de la salud que ejerzan la práctica privada o pública o se desempeñen como administradores de establecimientos de Salud o con interés en adquirir y profundizar los conocimientos jurídicos relativos al derecho en salud y a profesionales de otras disciplinas con interés en la normativa que regula la prestación de los servicios de salud. Para mayor información visitar el siguiente enlace: Diplomado de Legislación en Salud

 

 

 

 

Categoria: 
Noticias Locales

Banana fruit: An “appealing” alternative for practicing suture techniques in resource-limited settings

Publication date: Available online 30 June 2018
Source:American Journal of Otolaryngology

Author(s): Kevin Wong, Prabhat K. Bhama, Jean d'Amour Mazimpaka, Raban Dusabimana, Linda N. Lee, David A. Shaye

Purpose Suturing is an important core surgical competency that requires continued practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate bananas as a medium for practicing suture techniques in resource-limited settings. Materials and methods Using a crossover design, 20 University of Rwanda medical students practiced suturing on banana peels and commercial foam boards. Students were randomized into 2 groups: group A practiced on foam boards first and then bananas, and group B practiced on banana peels first and then foam boards. A post-workshop survey was then administered to students to gauge their attitude towards banana peels as a suturing practice material. Suture performance for each student was graded by three fellowship-trained facial plastic surgeons based on consistent spacing, knot location, appropriate knot, absence of air knots, and adequate bite size. Results Suture performance graded by facial plastic surgeons demonstrated that suturing outcomes with bananas were equal or superior to foam in 56.7% of instances. Twenty students participated in the workshop; 16 students responded to the survey (response rate = 80%). Students were comfortable practicing suturing with banana peels (Mdn = 4, IQR = 1) and strongly agreed that suturing banana peels was a useful activity (Mdn = 5, IQR = 1). Students thought banana peels and foam were comparable learning platforms (Mdn = 3.5, IQR = 1) and felt their suturing abilities improved with practice on banana peels (Mdn = 4, IQR = 1.3). Conclusions Banana peels are a low cost, equally viable alternative to synthetic suture media.





Categorías: Investigaciones

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