Investigaciones

A call for action to establish a research agenda for building a future health workforce in Europe

Abstract

The importance of a sustainable health workforce is increasingly recognised. However, the building of a future health workforce that is responsive to diverse population needs and demographic and economic change remains insufficiently understood. There is a compelling argument to be made for a comprehensive research agenda to address the questions. With a focus on Europe and taking a health systems approach, we introduce an agenda linked to the ‘Health Workforce Research’ section of the European Public Health Association. Six major objectives for health workforce policy were identified: (1) to develop frameworks that align health systems/governance and health workforce policy/planning, (2) to explore the effects of changing skill mixes and competencies across sectors and occupational groups, (3) to map how education and health workforce governance can be better integrated, (4) to analyse the impact of health workforce mobility on health systems, (5) to optimise the use of international/EU, national and regional health workforce data and monitoring and (6) to build capacity for policy implementation. This article highlights critical knowledge gaps that currently hamper the opportunities of effectively responding to these challenges and advising policy-makers in different health systems. Closing these knowledge gaps is therefore an important step towards future health workforce governance and policy implementation. There is an urgent need for building health workforce research as an independent, interdisciplinary and multi-professional field. This requires dedicated research funding, new academic education programmes, comparative methodology and knowledge transfer and leadership that can help countries to build a people-centred health workforce.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Assessing out-of-pocket expenditures for primary health care: how responsive is the Democratic Republic of Congo health system to providing financial risk protection?

Abstract Background

The goal of universal health coverage is challenging for chronically under-resourced health systems. Although household out-of-pocket payments are the most important source of health financing in low-income countries, relatively little is known about the drivers of primary health care expenditure and the predictability of the burden associated with high fee-for-service payments. This study describes out-of-pocket health expenditure and investigates demand- and supply-side drivers of excessive costs in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), a central African country in the midst of a process of reforming its health financing system towards universal health coverage.

Methods

A population-based household survey was conducted in four provinces of the DRC in 2014. Data included type, level and utilization of health care services, accessibility to care, patient satisfaction and disaggregated health care expenditure. Multivariate logistic regressions of excessive expenditure for outpatient care using alternative thresholds were performed to explore the incidence and predictors of atypically high expenditure incurred by individuals.

Results

Over 17% (17.5%) of individuals living in sample households reported an illness or injury without being hospitalized. Of 3341 individuals reporting an event in the four-week period prior to the survey, 65.6% sought outpatient care with an average of one visit (SD = 0.0). The overall mean expenditure per visit was US$ 6.7 (SD = 10.4) with 29.4% incurring excessive expenditure. The main predictors of a financial risk burden included utilizing public services offering the complementary benefit package, dissatisfaction with care received, being a member of a large household, expenditure composition, severity of illness, residence and wealth (p < .05). The insured status influenced the expenditure level, with no association with catastrophe. Those who did not seek care when needed reported financial constraints as the major reason for postponing or foregoing care. Wealth-related inequities were found in service and population coverage and in out-of-pocket payment for outpatient care.

Conclusion

Burdensome expenditure for primary care and its key drivers are of utmost importance. Forthcoming health financing reform agendas must incorporate a strategy for getting data used in the design of financial risk protection. Realizing equitable and efficient access to outpatient care is a vital ingredient for sustainable health systems.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The distance and chance of lifetime geographical movement of physicians in Japan: an analysis using the age-period-cohort model

Abstract Background

The uneven geographical distribution of physicians in Japan is a result of those physicians electing to work in certain locations. In order to understand this phenomenon, it is necessary to analyze the geographic movement of physicians across the Japanese landscape.

Methods

We obtained individual data on physicians from 1978 to 2012 detailing their attributes, work institutions, and locations. The data are from Japanese governmental sources (the Survey of Physicians, Dentists, and Pharmacists). The total sample size was 122 150 physicians, with 77.5% being male and 22.5% female. After obtaining the data, we calculated the geographical distance of each physician’s movement by using geographic information systems software (GIS; ArcGIS, ESRI, Inc., CA, USA). Geographical distance was then converted into time distance. We compared the resulting median values through nonparametric testing and then conducted a multivariate analysis. Our next step involved the use of an age-period-cohort (APC) model to measure the degree of impact three points of data, experience (experience years), the historical and environmental context of the data (survey year), and physician cohort (registration year) had on the movement of each physician.

Results

The ratio of female physicians who selected an urban area as their first working location was higher than that of male physicians. However, the selection of an urban area was becoming more popular as a first working location for both males and females as the year of data increased. The overall distance of geographical movement for female physicians was less than it was for male physicians. Physicians moved the greatest distance between their second and fourth years following license acquisition, at which point the time distance became shorter. The median time distance was 46 min in 2000 and 22 min in 2008. The physicians in our study did not move far from their first working location, and the overall distance of movement lessened in the more recent years of study. The median distance of movement after 20 years was 25.9 km for male physicians, and 19.1 km for female physicians. The results of the APC model indicated that the effects of experience years (age) gradually declined, that the survey year (period) effects increased, and that the registration year (cohort) effects increased initially before leveling off.

Conclusions

The trends following the introduction of the new mandatory training system in 2004 may imply that the concentration of physicians in Japan’s urban areas is expected to increase. After 2000, the effect of that period on physicians explains their geographical movements more so than the factor of their age.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Delivery of public health services by community health workers (CHWs) in primary health care settings in China: a systematic review (1996–2016)

Abstract Background

Community Health Workers (CHWs) have been widely used in response to the shortage of skilled health workers especially in resource limited areas. China has a long history of involving CHWs in public health intervention project. CHWs in China called village doctors who have both treatment and public health responsibilities. This systematic review aimed to identify the types of public health services provided by CHWs and summarized potential barriers and facilitating factors in the delivery of these services.

Methods

We searched studies published in Chinese or English, on Medline, PubMed, Cochrane, Google Scholar, and CNKI for public health services delivered by CHWs in China, during 1996–2016. The role of CHWs, training for CHWs, challenges, and facilitating factors were extracted from reviewed studies.

Results

Guided by National Basic Public Health Service Standards, services provided by CHW covered five major areas of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including diabetes and/or hypertension, cancer, mental health, cardiovascular diseases, and common NCD risk factors, as well as general services including reproductive health, tuberculosis, child health, vaccination, and other services. Not many studies investigated the barriers and facilitating factors of their programs, and none reported cost-effectiveness of the intervention. Barriers challenging the sustainability of the CHWs led projects were transportation, nature of official support, quantity and quality of CHWs, training of CHWs, incentives for CHWs, and maintaining a good rapport between CHWs and target population. Facilitating factors included positive official support, integration with the existing health system, financial support, considering CHW’s perspectives, and technology support.

Conclusion

CHWs appear to frequently engage in implementing diverse public health intervention programs in China. Facilitators and barriers identified are comparable to those identified in high income countries. Future CHWs-led programs should consider incorporating the common barriers and facilitators identified in the current study to maximize the benefits of these programs.

Categorías: Investigaciones

The impact of electronic health record systems on clinical documentation times: a systematic review

Publication date: Available online 5 June 2018
Source:Health Policy

Author(s): Lisa Ann Baumann, Jannah Baker, Adam G. Elshaug

Background Effective management of hospital staff time is crucial to quality patient care. Recent years have seen widespread implementation of electronic health record (EHR) systems but the effect of this on documentation time is unknown. This review compares time spent on documentation tasks by hospital staff (physicians, nurses and interns) before and after EHR implementation. Methods A systematic search identified 8,153 potentially relevant citations. Studies examining proportion of total workload spent on documentation with ≥40 hours of staff observation time were included. Meta-analysis was performed for physicians, nurses and interns comparing pre- and post-EHR results. Studies were weighted by person-hours observation time. Results Twenty-eight studies met selection criteria. Seventeen were pre-EHR, nine post-EHR and two examined both periods. With implementation of EHR, physicians’ documentation time increased from 16% (95% confidence interval (CI) 11–22%) to 28% (95% CI 19–37%), nurses from 9% (95% CI 6–12%) to 23% (95% CI 15–32%) and interns from 20% (95% CI 7–32%) to 26% (95% CI 10–42%). Conclusions There is a lack of long-term follow-up on the effects of EHR implementation. Initial adjustment to EHR appears to increase documentation time but there is some evidence that as staff become more familiar with the system, it may ultimately improve work flow.





Categorías: Investigaciones

Evaluation of the impact of the ARC program on national nursing and midwifery regulations, leadership, and organizational capacity in East, Central, and Southern Africa

Abstract Background

The African Health Professions Regulatory Collaborative (ARC) was launched in 2011 to support countries in East, Central, and Southern Africa to safely and sustainably expand HIV service delivery by nurses and midwives. While the World Health Organization recommended nurse initiated and managed antiretroviral therapy, many countries in this region had not updated their national regulations to ensure nurses and midwives were authorized and trained to provide essential HIV services. For four years, ARC awarded annual grants, convened regional meetings, and provided technical assistance to country teams of nursing and midwifery leaders to improve national regulations related to safe HIV service delivery. We examined the impact of the program on national regulations and the leadership and organizational capacity of country teams.

Methods

Data was collected to quantify the level of participation in ARC by each country (number of grants received, number of regional meetings attended, and amount of technical assistance received). The level of participation was analyzed according to two primary outcome measures: 1) changes in national regulations and 2) improvements in leadership and organizational capacity of country teams. Changes in national regulations were defined as advancement of one “stage” on a capability maturity model; nursing and midwifery leadership and organizational capacity was measured by a group survey at the end of the program.

Results

Seventeen countries participated in ARC between 2012 and 2016. Thirty-three grants were awarded; the majority addressed continuing professional development (20; 61%) and scopes of practice (6; 18%). Fourteen countries (representing approximately two-thirds of grants) progressed at least one stage on the capability maturity model. There were significant increases in all five domains of leadership and organizational capacity (p < 0.01). The number of grants (Kendall’s tau = 0.56, p = 0.02), duration of technical assistance (Kendall’s tau = 0.50, p = 0.03), and number of learning sessions attended (Kendall’s tau = 0.46, p = 0.04) were significantly associated with improvements in in-country collaboration between nursing and midwifery organizations.

Conclusions

The ARC program improved national nursing regulations in participating countries and increased reported leadership, organizational capacity, and collaboration among national nursing and midwifery organizations. These changes help ensure national policies and professional regulations underpin nurse initiated and managed treatment for people living with HIV.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Measuring performance on the Healthcare Access and Quality Index for 195 countries and territories and selected subnational locations: a systematic analysis from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016

Publication date: 2–8 June 2018
Source:The Lancet, Volume 391, Issue 10136

Author(s): GBD 2016 Healthcare Access and Quality CollaboratorsNancyFullmanJamalYearwoodSolomon MAbayCristianaAbbafatiFoadAbd-AllahJemalAbdelaAhmedAbdelalimZegeyeAbebeTeshome AbukaAbeboVictorAboyansHaftom NiguseAbrahaDaisy M XAbreuLaith JAbu-RaddadAkilew AwokeAdaneRufus AdesojiAdedoyinOlatunjiAdetokunbohTara BallavAdhikariMohsenAfaridehAshkanAfshinGinaAgarwalDominicAgiusAnuragAgrawalSutapaAgrawalAliasgharAhmad KiadaliriMiloud Taki EddineAichourMohammedAkibuRufus OlusolaAkinyemiTomi FAkinyemijuNadiaAkseerFaris HasanAl LamiFaresAlahdabZiyadAl-AlyKhurshidAlamTahiyaAlamDeenaAlasfoorMohammed IAlbittarKefyalew AddisAleneAymanAl-EyadhySyed DanishAliMehranAlijanzadehSyed MAljunidAla'aAlkerwiFrançoisAllaPeterAllebeckChristineAllenMahmoud AAlomariRajaaAl-RaddadiUbaiAlsharifKhalid AAltirkawiNelsonAlvis-GuzmanAzmeraw TAmareKebedeAmenuWalidAmmarYaw AmpemAmoakoNahlaAnberCatalina LilianaAndreiSofiaAndroudiCarl Abelardo TAntonioValdelaine E MAraújoOlatundeAremuJohanÄrnlövAlArtamanKrishna 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CSchneiderAustin ESchumacherAletta ESchutteDavid CSchwebelFalkSchwendickeMarioSekerijaSadaf GSepanlouEdson EServan-MoriAzadehShafieesabetMasood AliShaikhMarinaShakh-NazarovaMehranShams-BeyranvandHeidarSharafiMahdiSharif-AlhoseiniSheikh MohammedShariful IslamMeenakshiSharmaRajeshSharmaJunSheAzizSheikhMebrahtu TeweldemedhinShfarePeilinShiChloeShieldsMikaShigematsuYukitoShinoharaRahmanShiriRezaShirkoohiIvyShiueMark GShrimeSharvari RahulShuklaSorayaSiabaniInga DoraSigfusdottirDonald HSilberbergDiego Augusto SantosSilvaJoão PedroSilvaDayane Gabriele AlvesSilveiraJasvinder ASinghLavanyaSinghNarinder PalSinghVirendraSinghDhirendra NarainSinhaAbiy HiruyeSinkeMekonnenSisayVegardSkirbekkKarenSliwaAlisonSmithAdauto MartinsSoares FilhoBadr H ASobaihMelekSomaiSamirSonejiMoslemSoofiReed J DSorensenJoan BSorianoIreneous NSoyiriLuciano ASposatoChandrashekhar TSreeramareddyVinaySrinivasanJeffrey DStanawayVasilikiStathopoulouNicholasSteelDan JSteinMark AndrewStokesLelaSturuaMuawiyyah BabaleSufiyanRizwan 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RWeaverElisabeteWeiderpassRobert GWeintraubJordanWeissKidu GideyWeldegwergsAndreaWerdeckerT EoinWestRonnyWestermanRichard GWhiteHarvey AWhitefordJustynaWideckaAndrea SylviaWinklerCharles SheyWiysongeCharles DAWolfeYohanes AyeleWondimkunAbdulhalikWorkichoGrant M AWyperDenisXavierGelinXuLijing LYanYuichiroYanoMehdiYaseriNigus BililignYimerPengYinPaulYipBiruck DesalegnYirsawNaohiroYonemotoGeraldYongaSeok-JunYoonMarcelYotebiengMustafa ZYounisChuanhuaYuVesnaZadnikZoubidaZaidiMaysaa El SayedZakiSojib BinZamanMohammadZamaniZerihun MenlkalewZenebeMaigengZhouJunZhuStephanie R MZimsenBenZipkinSanjayZodpeyLiesl JoannaZuhlkeChristopher J LMurrayRafaelLozano

Background A key component of achieving universal health coverage is ensuring that all populations have access to quality health care. Examining where gains have occurred or progress has faltered across and within countries is crucial to guiding decisions and strategies for future improvement. We used the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) to assess personal health-care access and quality with the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index for 195 countries and territories, as well as subnational locations in seven countries, from 1990 to 2016. Methods Drawing from established methods and updated estimates from GBD 2016, we used 32 causes from which death should not occur in the presence of effective care to approximate personal health-care access and quality by location and over time. To better isolate potential effects of personal health-care access and quality from underlying risk factor patterns, we risk-standardised cause-specific deaths due to non-cancers by location-year, replacing the local joint exposure of environmental and behavioural risks with the global level of exposure. Supported by the expansion of cancer registry data in GBD 2016, we used mortality-to-incidence ratios for cancers instead of risk-standardised death rates to provide a stronger signal of the effects of personal health care and access on cancer survival. We transformed each cause to a scale of 0–100, with 0 as the first percentile (worst) observed between 1990 and 2016, and 100 as the 99th percentile (best); we set these thresholds at the country level, and then applied them to subnational locations. We applied a principal components analysis to construct the HAQ Index using all scaled cause values, providing an overall score of 0–100 of personal health-care access and quality by location over time. We then compared HAQ Index levels and trends by quintiles on the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary measure of overall development. As derived from the broader GBD study and other data sources, we examined relationships between national HAQ Index scores and potential correlates of performance, such as total health spending per capita. Findings In 2016, HAQ Index performance spanned from a high of 97·1 (95% UI 95·8–98·1) in Iceland, followed by 96·6 (94·9–97·9) in Norway and 96·1 (94·5–97·3) in the Netherlands, to values as low as 18·6 (13·1–24·4) in the Central African Republic, 19·0 (14·3–23·7) in Somalia, and 23·4 (20·2–26·8) in Guinea-Bissau. The pace of progress achieved between 1990 and 2016 varied, with markedly faster improvements occurring between 2000 and 2016 for many countries in sub-Saharan Africa and southeast Asia, whereas several countries in Latin America and elsewhere saw progress stagnate after experiencing considerable advances in the HAQ Index between 1990 and 2000. Striking subnational disparities emerged in personal health-care access and quality, with China and India having particularly large gaps between locations with the highest and lowest scores in 2016. In China, performance ranged from 91·5 (89·1–93·6) in Beijing to 48·0 (43·4–53·2) in Tibet (a 43·5-point difference), while India saw a 30·8-point disparity, from 64·8 (59·6–68·8) in Goa to 34·0 (30·3–38·1) in Assam. Japan recorded the smallest range in subnational HAQ performance in 2016 (a 4·8-point difference), whereas differences between subnational locations with the highest and lowest HAQ Index values were more than two times as high for the USA and three times as high for England. State-level gaps in the HAQ Index in Mexico somewhat narrowed from 1990 to 2016 (from a 20·9-point to 17·0-point difference), whereas in Brazil, disparities slightly increased across states during this time (a 17·2-point to 20·4-point difference). Performance on the HAQ Index showed strong linkages to overall development, with high and high-middle SDI countries generally having higher scores and faster gains for non-communicable diseases. Nonetheless, countries across the development spectrum saw substantial gains in some key health service areas from 2000 to 2016, most notably vaccine-preventable diseases. Overall, national performance on the HAQ Index was positively associated with higher levels of total health spending per capita, as well as health systems inputs, but these relationships were quite heterogeneous, particularly among low-to-middle SDI countries. Interpretation GBD 2016 provides a more detailed understanding of past success and current challenges in improving personal health-care access and quality worldwide. Despite substantial gains since 2000, many low-SDI and middle-SDI countries face considerable challenges unless heightened policy action and investments focus on advancing access to and quality of health care across key health services, especially non-communicable diseases. Stagnating or minimal improvements experienced by several low-middle to high-middle SDI countries could reflect the complexities of re-orienting both primary and secondary health-care services beyond the more limited foci of the Millennium Development Goals. Alongside initiatives to strengthen public health programmes, the pursuit of universal health coverage hinges upon improving both access and quality worldwide, and thus requires adopting a more comprehensive view—and subsequent provision—of quality health care for all populations. Funding Bill &amp; Melinda Gates Foundation.





Categorías: Investigaciones

Nursing Competence in Geriatric/Long Term Care Curriculum Development for Baccalaureate Nursing Programs: A Systematic Review

Publication date: Available online 1 June 2018
Source:Journal of Professional Nursing

Author(s): Pei-Lun Hsieh, Ching-Min Chen

Background As facing the rapid growth of the elderly population, the demands for geriatric and long-term care are drastically increasing. Since one of the important strategies in preparation for long-term care system is to focus on the engagement of health care professionals, this paper applies a systematic approach to review the current geriatric and long term care courses in Bachelor of Science in Nursing (BSN) programs. This review assessed the impact of Geriatric Nursing (GN) and/or Long Term Care (LTC) courses on nursing students' knowledge, care intention and competence of Geriatric Long Term Care (GLTC) care to enable their nursing competence before graduation. Method Data related to the purpose of the study, research design, sample, curriculum content, teaching strategies, evaluation measurements and results were extracted. The methodological quality of all publications was included in the review. Results Eighteen articles were eligible for analysis, including 16 quantitative and 2 qualitative studies. The review revealed that including geriatric and long term care content in undergraduate nursing curriculum could effectively enhance students' nursing competence. Conclusion GN and LTC curriculum development should offer established content on geriatric and long term care as a foundation to implement early learning experiences in the curriculum. Both theory and clinical practice of GLTC course can be developed to increase the nursing students' knowing on the elders and the disabled through the clinical placement.





Categorías: Investigaciones

Public health education at China’s higher education institutions: a time-series analysis from 1998 to 2012

Abstract Background

Although China’s modern education for public health was developing over the past 60 years, there is a lack of authoritative statistics and analyses on the nation’s development of education for public health at higher education institutions (HEIs). Few quantitative studies on this topic have been published in domestic and international peer-reviewed journals. To address this knowledge gap, we aimed to use national data to quantitatively analyse the scale, structure, and changes of public health education in China’s HEIs, and to compare the changes of public health education with those of other health science disciplines.

Methods

This study uses previously unreleased national data provided by the Ministry of Education of China that includes the number of health professional students by school and major. The data, which spans from 1998 to 2012, are descriptively analyzed.

Results

The number of HEIs for public health education per 100 million population increased from 7.2 in 1998 to 11.3 in 2012. The total enrolment, number of students, and number of graduates increased at rates of 7.3, 7.4, and 5.8% per year, respectively. The percentage of junior college students dropped drastically from 24.0 to 8.4% from 1998 to 2012. During that same period, the number of undergraduates, master and doctorate students increased. Undergraduates accounted for the majority of public health graduates (63.1%) in 2012, and master and doctorate students increased by 10.0 and 5.1 times, respectively, from 1998 to 2012. The relative percentage of public health enrollment, students, and graduates to all health education disciplines dropped from about 6.0% percent in 1998 to around 2% in 2012.

Conclusions

The overall scale of public health education has clearly expanded, though at a slower pace than many other health science disciplines in China. The increase of public health graduates helped to address the previous shortage of public health professionals. Gradually adopting a modern model of education, public health education in China has undergone notable changes that may be informative to other developing countries though it still faces a complex situation in terms of graduates’ adherence to public health, student recruitment, teaching and training, program planning and reform.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Community and health systems barriers and enablers to family planning and contraceptive services provision and use in Kabwe District, Zambia

Abstract Background

Unmet need for contraception results in several health challenges such as unintended pregnancies, unwanted births and unsafe abortions. Most interventions have been unable to successfully address this unmet need due to various community and health system level factors. Identifying these inhibiting and enabling factors prior to implementation of interventions forms the basis for planning efforts to increase met needs. This qualitative study was part of the formative phase of a larger research project that aimed to develop an intervention to increase met needs for contraception through community and health system participation. The specific study component reported here explores barriers and enablers to family planning and contraceptive services provision and utilisation at community and health systems levels.

Methods

Twelve focus group discussions were conducted with community members (n = 114) and two with healthcare providers (n = 19). Ten in-depth interviews were held with key stakeholders. The study was conducted in Kabwe district, Zambia. Interviews/discussions were translated and transcribed verbatim. Data were coded and organised using NVivo 10 (QSR international), and were analysed using thematic analysis.

Results

Health systems barriers include long distances to healthcare facilities, stock-outs of preferred methods, lack of policies facilitating contraceptive provision in schools, and undesirable provider attitudes. Community level barriers comprise women’s experience with contraceptive side effects, myths, rumours and misconceptions, societal stigma, and negative traditional and religious beliefs. On the other hand, health systems enablers consist of political will from government to expand contraceptive services access, integration of contraceptive services, provision of couples counselling, and availability of personnel to offer basic methods mix. Functional community health system structures, community desire to delay pregnancy, and knowledge of contraceptive services are enablers at a community level.

Conclusions

These study findings highlight key community and health systems factors that should be considered by policy, program planners and implementers in the design and implementation of family planning and contraceptive services programmes, to ensure sustained uptake and increased met needs for contraceptive methods and services.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Preferred and actual retirement age of oral and maxillofacial surgeons aged 55 and older in the Netherlands: a longitudinal study from 2003 to 2016

Abstract Background

In workforce planning for oral and maxillofacial surgeons in the Netherlands, it is important to plan timely, as these dental specialists are required to earn both medical and dental degrees. An important factor to take into account in workforce planning is the outflow of the profession through retirement. In the workforce planning in the Netherlands, it was assumed that retirement plans are a predictor for the actual moment of retirement. The purpose of this study was to investigate this assumption.

Methods

A standardised survey to investigate the work activity and retirement plans of oral and maxillofacial surgeons was conducted seven times between 2003 and 2016. With some minor variations, in every edition, all oral and maxillofacial surgeons aged 55 years and older who did not indicate to be retired in an earlier edition were invited to participate. The data of all seven editions was analysed to investigate what factors influence the actual retirement age. For the analyses of the data, ANOVA and linear regression were employed.

Results

The response rate was at least 80% in all editions. For all editions combined, 185 surgeons were invited one or more times, of whom 170 responded at least once. Between 2003 and 2016, the mean preferred retirement age increased from 63.7 to 66.7. Two thirds of the respondents who participated in more than one edition had revised their preferred retirement age upwards. Regarding the difference between preferred and actual retirement age, 45% of the oral and maxillofacial surgeons retired at a higher age than originally preferred and another 14% was still working at the age the originally preferred to retire. Linear regression shows that preferred retirement age is associated with sex and the number of working hours and that actual retirement age is associated with preferred retirement age, earlier preference to decrease working hours and working in non-academic hospitals.

Conclusion

Altogether, it seems that in this group the preferred retirement age has some predictive value, but the oral and maxillofacial surgeons tend to retire at a higher age than they originally preferred to.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Allopathic, AYUSH and informal medical practitioners in rural India – a prescription for change

Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
Source:Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine

Author(s): Shailaja Chandra, Kishor Patwardhan

This paper looks at the treatment seeking behaviour of rural households and presents factors that discourage them from using public health facilities. It also brings out how Allopathic medical graduates as well as institutionally qualified AYUSH doctors predominantly offer services in cities and townships which results in lakhs of village households having to depend on unqualified medical practitioners as the first line of medical treatment; also how this situation will continue unless the approach to providing medical treatment is modified. Continued dependence on unqualified practitioners is fraught with dangers of incorrect diagnosis, irrational drug use, resulting in the spread of multi-drug resistance. The reality that surrounds Allopathic practice by AYUSH doctors has also been described along with the educational underpinnings of accepting this approach. We opine that existing state policies that legitimise Allopathic practice by non-Allopathic practitioners do not help the rural poor to access proper medical treatment for acute conditions. Also, it does not enhance the credibility of the indigenous systems of medicine among which Ayurveda is the dominant system. First, we position our views in the context of the recently introduced National Medical Commission (NMC) Bill 2017 and provisions which call for the assessment of the need for human resources for health and building a road map to achieve the same. Second, we advocate re-inventing the pre-independence system of trained medical auxiliaries enrolled on a new schedule of the respective state medical register, authorised to give immediate medical treatment and making informed referrals for further diagnosis or specialised treatment. Finally, we recommend reinforcing the AYUSH systems to tackle emerging non-communicable diseases which are affecting all population cohorts adversely and, in whose prevention and management, the AYUSH systems are reported to possess special skills and competence.





Categorías: Investigaciones

Reflections of a Cardiac Surgeon Turned Global Health Educator

Publication date: Available online 29 May 2018
Source:The Annals of Thoracic Surgery

Author(s): Michael C. Sinclair







Categorías: Investigaciones

Task shifting between physicians and nurses in acute care hospitals: cross-sectional study in nine countries

Abstract Background

Countries vary in the extent to which reforms have been implemented expanding nurses’ Scopes-of-Practice (SoP). There is limited cross-country research if and how reforms affect clinical practice, particularly in hospitals. This study analyses health professionals’ perceptions of role change and of task shifting between the medical and nursing professions in nine European countries.

Methods

Cross-sectional design with surveys completed by 1716 health professionals treating patients with breast cancer (BC) and acute myocardial infarction (AMI) in 161 hospitals across nine countries. Descriptive and bivariate analysis on self-reported staff role changes and levels of independence (with/without physician oversight) by two country groups, with major SoP reforms implemented between 2010 and 2015 (Netherlands, England, Scotland) and without (Czech Republic, Germany, Italy, Norway, Poland, Turkey). Participation in ‘medical tasks’ was identified using two methods, a data-driven and a conceptual approach. Individual task-related analyses were performed for the medical and nursing professions, and Advanced Practice Nurses/Specialist Nurses (APN/SN).

Results

Health professionals from the Netherlands, England and Scotland more frequently reported changes to staff roles over this time period vs. the other six countries (BC 74.0% vs. 38.7%, p < .001; AMI 61.7% vs. 37.3%, p < .001), and higher independence in new roles (BC 58.6% vs. 24.0%, p < .001; AMI 48.9% vs. 29.2%, p < .001). A higher proportion of nurses and APN/SN from these three countries reported to undertake tasks related to BC diagnosis, therapy, prescribing of medicines and information to patients compared to the six countries. Similar cross-country differences existed for AMI on prescribing medications and follow-up care. Tasks related to diagnosis and therapy, however, remained largely within the medical profession’s domain. Most tasks were reported to be performed by both professions rather than carried out by one profession only.

Conclusions

Higher levels of changes to staff roles and task shifting were reported in the Netherlands, England and Scotland, suggesting that professional boundaries have shifted, for instance on chemotherapy or prescribing medicines. For most tasks, however, a partial instead of full task shifting is practice.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Prevalence of anemia among school-age children in Ethiopia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Abstract Background

Anemia continued to become a major public health problem in developing nations including Ethiopia. Especially, school children are more vulnerable for anemia and consequences of anemia. Generating accurate epidemiological data on anemia in school children is an important step for health policy maker. There are limited evidences on anemia prevalence in school-age children in Ethiopia. This study aimed to synthesize the pooled prevalence of anemia in school-age children in Ethiopia.

Methods

This systematic review and meta-analysis was followed the PRISMA guidelines. Comprehensive searched was conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar, HINARI, and Ethiopian Journal of Health Development for studies published before 2016, supplemented by manual searches to identify relevant studies. Two review authors independently selected studies, extracted data, and assessed quality of studies. The Cochrane Q test and I2 test statistic were used to test heterogeneity through studies. The overall prevalence was calculated using random-effects model of DerSimonian–Laird method.

Results

From 831 obtained studies, 13 articles included in the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of anemia among school children in Ethiopia was 23% (95% CI 18–28%). The prevalence of anemia in male and female school-age children was 27% (95% CI 20 and 34%) and 24% (95% CI 18 and 30%), respectively.

Conclusions

This study found that prevalence of anemia was a moderate public health problem in school children. Due to the complications of anemia for school children, preventative planning and control of anemia among school children in Ethiopia is necessary.

Categorías: Investigaciones

Sláintecare – a ten-year plan for Irish health reform devised through political consensus

Publication date: Available online 22 May 2018
Source:Health Policy

Author(s): Sara Burke, Sarah Barry, Rikke Siersbaek, Bridget Johnston, Maebh Ní Fhallúin, Steve Thomas

In May 2017, an Irish cross-party parliamentary committee published the ‘Houses of the Oireachtas Committee on the Future of Healthcare “Sláintecare” report’. The report known as ‘Sláintecare’ was unique and historic as it is the first time there has been a cross-party political consensus for major health reform in Ireland. Sláintecare sets out a high level policy road map roadmap to deliver whole system reform and universal healthcare, phased over a ten year period and costed. Sláintecare details reform proposals which, if delivered, will establish; a universal, single-tier health service where patients are treated solely on the basis of health need; the reorientation of the health system ‘towards integrated primary and community care, consistent with the highest quality of patient safety in as short a time-frame as possible’. Sláintecare has five interrelated components: population health, entitlements and access to healthcare; integrated care, funding. In this article, the authors use documents/materials in the public domain (parliamentary reports, public hearings, submissions to the Committee, media coverage, the final report of the Committee, speeches by Committee members) to describe the policy process and the main contents of the proposed Sláintecare reforms. It is too soon tell if the political consensus in the policy formation can hold for its implementation.





Categorías: Investigaciones

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